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Volume I 

Spring 1957 

Number 1 


After the great effort made by the State 
of North Carolina in building up a col- 
lection of old masters worthy of the State 
and attractive to visitors from the United 
States and other parts of the world, it was 
rightly assumed by state officials that in 
the near future new additions should be 
made through private donations. If we 
were successful in our attempt to extend 
the collection in this manner, it would 
prove that the interest in the museum was 
widespread and that it was serving its 
function in relation to the public. The 
action of the Legislature — unique in the 
history of museums in the United States — 
to spend one million dollars toward the 
foundation of a collection would thus be 

Fortunately, such donors — foundations as 
well as private citizens — came to the fore 
to help us with important gifts, amounting 
within a year to about one-third of the 
capital invested by the state, which, if 
added to the donations received before the 
opening of the museum, would total about 

forty per cent more than the original 
legislative appropriation. Thanks to the 
inexhaustible efforts of the president of the 
Art Society, Mr. Robert Lee Humber, 
seconded by members of the board, and 
the staff, these gifts were such as to be 
able to fill certain gaps in the collection, 
and at the same time to add a few master- 
pieces by artists not represented in the 
museum. The collaboration between the 
donors and the staff, which is necessary if 
the museum is to develop in the right 
direction, has proved to be well knit. The 
donors understood that the professional 
staff of the museum would have an overall 
plan and would know in which fields the 
collections need to be strengthened, while 
the museum's officials could learn from the 
donors in which directions lay the interests 
of North Carolina's art friends. 

This first number of our bulletin is 
dedicated to the acquisitions which have 
come as gifts and extended loans during 
the first year of the existence of the North 
Carolina Museum of Art. 

W. R. V. 

Cover: Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish, 1746-1828), The Topers, painted in 1819. Canvas, 
39j^ x 31 J/2 inches. Gift of the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation, Reynolda, North Carolina. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin is published quarterly. Copyright, 1957, by the North Carolina Mu- 
seum of Art, 107 East Morgan Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Subscriptions SI. 00 a year. Single copies $.25. 
Sent free to North Carolina State Art Society members. Four weeks' notice required for change of address. 


Foreword ii 

Tintoretto's "Forge of Vulcan" 3 

By Clemens Sommer 

In the Sphere of Rubens 6 

I. Van Dyck, "Madonna and Child With Five Saints" 6 

II. Theodor Rombouts, "The Backgammon Players" 8 

III. Sculptures by Francois Duquesnoy 9 

Tiepolo, "The Banquet of Cleopatra" 11 

Goya, "The Topers" 12 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Henry Fuseli, "The Three Weird Sisters" 14 

By May Davis Hill 

Thomas Sully 17 

By James B. Byrnes 

Acquisitions of Twentieth Century Paintings 22 

By Ben F. Williams 

Registrar's Report of New Acquisitions, April 6, 1956, to February 6, 1957 24 










by Clemens Sommer 

Tintoretto's "Forge of Vulcan" (Fig. 2), 
on loan from Mr. and Mrs. W. Lunsford 
Long, is not a newcomer in art history: 
As early as 1925 the painting was in a 
loan exhibition of the Kaiser-Friedrich- 
Museums-Verein in the Akademie der 
Kiinste in Berlin (No. 397). Strangely 
enough, it has not found any consideration 
in the Tintoretto literature of the past 
thirty years. The reason might be that the 
painting was more or less hidden until it 
turned up in this country very recently. 
About the genuineness and the attribution 
there can hardly be any doubt. It bears 
too obviously the characteristics of Tin- 
toretto's hand. 

The size (height 30 L 2 inches, width 52^9 
inches) of the painting is rather unusual, 
most of Tintoretto's paintings being on a 
more monumental scale. The reason for 
this might be — as Wilhelm Bode suggested 
— that the painting was a sopraporte or 
another part of a room decoration. The 
fact that the figures in the painting fall 
into an integrated pattern only if the paint- 
ing is seen from below points in the same 
direction, and so does the subdued and 
generalized tonality of the color. The 
stretcher is certainly a 19th century replace- 
ment, since only the left edge of the canvas 
seems to be intact, and it is likely that on 
top and bottom, as well as on the right 
side, some small areas may be missing. 

The subject matter of the painting is 
clear. It is taken from the eighth book of 
Virgil's Aeneid. Aeneas has landed in 
Italy during the war with Turnus. His 
divine mother, Venus, fearing for her 
son's safety, asks her husband, Vulcan, to 
make him armor and so persuades him 

through feminine wiles and love-making. 
The scene Tintoretto painted is the sequel 
to this. Vulcan hurries to the cave under 
Mount Aetna in Sicily where the Cyclopes 
work. He tells them that they must lay 
down the work they are doing and immedi- 
ately start to forge the armor for Aeneas. 
The story tells that when Vulcan entered 
the Cyclopes' cave, there were three of 
them, Brontes, Steropes and Pyracmon, in 
the process of making armor for Athene. 
This is the moment Tintoretto has chosen. 
Billowing clouds drift in from the right 
edge of the painting, carrying the lithe figure 
of the god, who bends forward pointing with 
unmistakable gesture. The white color of 
the skin, the weightlessness of his slender 
limbs, the silken white hair, characterize 
him as a god nourished by ambrosia, in 
strong contrast to the ruddy complexions 
and powerful build of the working com- 
panions. They stand around the anvil, on 
which one is holding a shield with pincers 
in his left hand while pointing out the 
place to be hit with a light hammer in his 
right. The other two swing their heavy 
hammers to follow the lead. While the one 
in the center is rather well-clad, the one 
to the left wears only a working shirt and 
the one to the right, seen from the back, is 
entirely nude. In front of the anvil, on the 
ground, is seen Athene's aegis with the 
Gorgon's head, which is here shaped like 
a harness. To the right of the group is a 
chariot, only partly assembled. The two 
Cyclopes seen from the front show their 
characteristic, the one eye on the forehead. 
Back of this group of the main actors, 
giving stability to the rapidly moving 


figures, are pillar-like supports, which look 
like natural formations on the right, turn- 
ing into man-made structures to the left. 
On the left there are openings into a hall 
which seems to be filled with a luminous 
atmosphere. We can dimly see large vaults 
resting on pillars with capitals. In this 
hall, on the left edge of the painting, a 
nude Cyclops is working on some indefinite 
chore. There must have been a view 
through the arches in the distance, but the 
state of preservation makes it impossible 
to give an interpretation to the vague 
forms visible there. On the right side we 
see through the openings into what once 
was a vast landscape. A clouded sky 
stretches over a wide body of water, which 
is bordered by hills and mountains. On 
the right edge, shadowy forms seem to 
indicate that there was a bridge. Seen 
through the opening under Vulcan's arm 
a clothed figure (outside the cave) bends 
forward holding large pincers with which 
he dips a piece of steel into the water. 

The fluent way in which the story is 
told, the manner in which its important 
elements are distributed so as to give a 
clear understanding of the events, the 
characterization of the actors and their 
activities, this alone should erase any 
doubt that the painting is from the master's 
hand. So also does the well-balanced 
composition, which leads the eye without 
haste from form to form, giving time to 
observe the single parts without breaking 
the continuity of the whole. From the 
tense, compressed force in the figure of 
the Cyclops to the left, through the calmer 
but no less dynamic movement of the two 
center figures, we are led to the sweeping 
but graceful lines of the figure of Vulcan, 
whose gesture brings us immediately back 
to the center of the form as well as the 

story. Without distracting our eye, the 
background with its rhythmical alter- 
nation between light and dark, between 
far and near, accentuates and accompanies 
the dynamic interrelation of the move- 
ments. The coloristic effect strives for 
totality based on a luminous yellowish- 
brown, strongest in the figure of the 
Cyclops to the left. The cool bluish-green 
of the center figure contrasts with the 
warm light on the body of his naked com- 
panion and accentuates the white of Vul- 
can's body, framed by his coat of wine-red, 
a color so typical of Tintoretto's palette. 
The luminous gold haze of the background i 
to the left and the dark browns of the 
bulky forms in the center and to the right ( 
are again a perfect accompaniment for the j 
delicate color scheme of the main group. ] 
The lost landscape of the background at | 
the right must certainly have contributed ] 
much to the complex totality of the color. ( 
All these criteria seem to indicate a work , 
of maturity and might lead to the con- [ 
elusion that the "Forge of Vulcan" would c 
be a late work of Tintoretto's hand, but 
closer analysis points in the opposite f 
direction. The planar arrangement of the c 
main group, the lack of recessional devices, t 
sets it off from all the works of Tintoretto's 
late period. The careful arrangement of |, 
all the figures, so that they can be seen as ] 
independent forms, and the clarity of the S( 
outline are far from the dynamic inte- j 
gration of the late works. The use of light, [ ( 
dramatic as it is, has still as its main purpose „ 
the clarification and not the integration of 
the form. Comparison with any of Tin- j 
toretto's paintings of the time after 1560 
will show this. But, besides these general 
characteristics, there are certain definite 1! 
clues which enable us to place the "Forge j, 
of Vulcan" at a very definite point in the !j 


development of the master (ca. 1545-48). 
The figure of the nude man seen from the 
back is certainly an outstanding motive. 
Its companion can be found in quite a 
number of Tintoretto's paintings, although 
always clothed. We find him in the 
"Adulteress" in Dresden and in the version 
of the same theme in the Rath Collection 
in Amsterdam, but above all in the central 
figure of the executioner in the "St. Mark 
Rescuing the Slave" in the Academy, to 
appear for the last time in the woman with 
a child in the foreground of the "Presen- 
tation of the Virgin" in the Madonna dell' 
Orto. After that it disappears entirely from 
Tintoretto's form language. In the "Forge 
of Vulcan" this motive has all the freshness 
and absorbing interest of a new invention. 
But the closest version to it appears in a 
little-known painting of the "Wise and 
Foolish Virgins" in the Van Beuningen 
Collection, which I know only from a 
rather poor illustration in Pallucchini's 
book. 1 In this same painting, there appears 
on the left edge a little group of two people 
seated in front of a fire in a back room 
filled with a luminous atmosphere like the 
dimly lighted hall behind the forge and 
the figures of the Cyclopes. 

Thus, it seems to me that the time not 
' long before the great turning point in 
1 Tintoretto's artistic development, which is 
' so beautifully manifested in "St. Mark 

■ Rescuing a Slave," should give the date 

■ for our painting. The interest in clear 
' narration, the still slightly manneristic use 
I of established formulae — as seen also in the 
• little arabesque-like plants, the decorative 
J tendency in the arrangement of the acces- 

'1 1 R. Pallucchini, La Giovanezza del Tintoretto, Milan, 
f 1950, figure 173. Further information about the artist 

may be found in Pallucchini and in the works of E. von 
t der Bercken (Die Gemalde des Jacopo Tintoretto, Munich, 

1942) and H. Tietze (Tintoretto, The Paintings and 

Drawings, London, 1948). 

sories — all this accounts for the first im- 
pression of maturity, a maturity which 
Tintoretto had achieved in this fateful 
moment, a finality which seems to char- 
acterize such works as the "Last Supper" 
in San Marcuola, the "Washing of the 
Feet" in the Escorial, and above all, the 
superbly decorative panels with Biblical 
stories in the Prado at Madrid. 

But there is one more proof for this 
dating of our painting. Three times has 
Tintoretto made use of the forge motive. 
One of the four paintings which he executed 
for the Salotto Dorato of the Ducal Palace, 
in 1578, shows the Forge of Vulcan again. 
As in our painting, four figures surround 
the anvil, but no story is told. All emphasis 
is on the melodious rhythm of the action of 
forging. There is no interest in the descrip- 
tion of the Cyclopes, who appear here as 
normal human beings. Placed in an even 
distribution around the anvil, the rise 
and fall of their hammers conveys the 
feeling of an incessant circulating motion, 
a dynamic manifestation of movement in 
space and time. This version of the motive 
is certainly a long way from the graceful, 
decorative arrangement of our painting. 
The motive appears for the third time in 
one of Tintoretto's most mature paintings, 
the "Gathering of the Manna" in San 
Giorgio Maggiore, from about 1594. In 
the upper left corner of this wonderfully 
exuberant symphony to the praise of this 
life on earth are three men gathered around 
an anvil. The almost jubilant intensity of 
their movements seems to rotate around 
the anvil in a frenzy of action. Thus, the 
three versions of our motive really sum up 
the whole course of Tintoretto's transfor- 
mation from a graceful representative of 
the dying High Renaissance to the forceful 
innovator of the baroque. 


by W. R. Valentiner 

As the purpose of a museum is not only 
to give the greatest esthetic pleasure to 
the cultured mind, but also to educate its 
visitors in the history of art and culture, 
one of its tasks is to show the masters 
represented within the atmosphere in which 
they lived and to explain the tradition out 
of which they grew, as well as the extension 
of their influence. 

Rubens is the best represented among 
the old masters in our collection. We are 
now trying to give an idea of his surround- 
ings, the "ambiente," as it is called in 
Italian — a word difficult to translate. We 
observe that what has hardly ever happened 
elsewhere in the art history of a country oc- 
curred in the case of Rubens: one person- 
ality not only towered above all other 
artists of his country, but even made them 
subservient to his ideas to such an extent 
that they formed a part of his individuality. 

With this we do not mean to say that 
no other artist personalities could exist 
alongside him — there were a sufficient num- 
ber in Flanders, like Van Dyck, Jordaens, 
Sustermans, Cornelis de Vos, and the still- 
life and landscape painters — but the fact 
remains that we could not imagine the 
development of any of these painters with- 
out their being strongly influenced by 
Rubens, an influence which was often due 
to a collaboration with him. And this 
refers not only to painters, but also to the 
masters of sculpture and the decorative 
arts, among them the tapestry weavers 
who are represented in our museum by 

the series with scenes from the Trojan 
War designed by a follower of Rubens. 


Van Dyck 

"Madonna and Child With Five Saints" i 

The greatest personality in seventeenth 
century Flanders next to Rubens was Van a 
Dyck. His production in a short life is | 
phenomenal. In portrait painting — his main I 
subject — he is most original, for two cen- ! t 
turies influencing the future masters in this I 
field perhaps even more than Rubens. In ot 
his religious paintings he reveals a passion 
equal to his master, but in these themes to 
as in other storied representations his sub- li 
jectivity narrowed his vision and denied Is 
him that outlook upon the vastness of the an 
world's creation which makes Rubens so I 
great and, as Jacob Burckhardt aptly I 
remarked, comparable to Homer. 

We could not imagine Van Dyck without ! ¥ 
the inspiration he received from Rubens. | »> 
It is characteristic that his greatest epoch ^ 
is the early Antwerp period when he was SU( 
nearest to his master. When he departed 
for Italy with the intention of freeing him- ^ 
self from Rubens's tutorage he found on I 
his first stop in Genoa, where there was 
great demand for his portraits, that Rubens ffi 
had already created there, twenty years m 
earlier, the monumental aristocratic por- ' 
trait style for which Van Dyck was striving. 11 ' 

"The Madonna and Child with Five»P lfl 
Saints" (Fig. 3), now on exhibition in the r 
museum, as a loan from J. B. Ivey and ^ 


Company of Charlotte, North Carolina, 
which acquired it, is undoubtedly one of 
Van Dyck's masterpieces executed just be- 
fore he left for Italy, in the years 1618-21, 
when he painted such famous masterpieces 
of portraiture as the portraits of Snyders and 
his wife in the Frick Collection, the portrait 
of Rubcns's wife "Isabella Brant" in the 
National Gallery in Washington, and the 
"Portrait of a Gentleman" in the Gul- 
benkian Collection. The "Madonna and 
Child with Five Saints" is built up in a tri- 
angular composition in the Italian manner 
with the figures in strong counter-move- 
ment, so that a continuous rhythm moves 
through the entire painting, in which the 
Madonna and the beautiful Christ Child 
occupy the central places. 

Van Dyck, trying in vain to attain the 
robust vitality of his master, differs from 
• him in his more nervous sensibility. His 
figures are filled with an emotional quality 
: and fervent expression which speak for the 
i religious ecstasy of the young artist. The 
youthful female types in our painting, some 
:>f great beauty like the auburn-haired Vir- 
t ^in and the elegantly dressed Saint Barbara, 
have a more ethereal character than those 
, :>f Rubens and have lost the joyous sen- 
j iuousness of their prototypes. Saint Magda- 
] ene and Saint Theresa, to the right, 
. ilmost faint with pious desires and are 
] :onsumed with a fanatical frenzy typical 
s }f the religious art of the Counter Refor- 
s nation, of which Van Dyck was a repre- 
s ;entative. 

If we remember that Van Dyck painted 
r it that period such famous religious master- 
nieces as "The Betrayal of Christ" and 
e 'The Brazen Serpent" in Madrid, the 
, 'Saint Jerome" in Dresden and Stockholm, 

the "Saint Sebastian" in Munich, and the 
two Saint Johns in Berlin, and notice 
the close connection in type and execution 
with the newly acquired painting, we 
become aware that this painting was 
created in the midst of a stormy period in 
which the artist was bursting with new 
ideas and an enthusiasm for passionate 
creations which hardly could be surpassed 
in later life, a life which ebbed soon after 
it had reached its maturity. 

The restless movements of these figures, 
their trembling hands, the flaming curves of 
their draperies, and the nervous, pasty tech- 
nique combined with the brilliancy of the 
rich color, especially cinnabar and azure 
blue, reminds us that we are here still close 
to the great mannerists of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and to the most modern of all, the 
Spaniard El Greco. In no other period 
was Van Dyck so near to our modern 
expressionism, and for this reason the inter- 
est in his early works, which were neglected 
for many years, has grown so much in 
recent times that these paintings belong- 
now among the most valuable of the artist's 

Thus far, we have had Van Dyck repre- 
sented in the Museum through five 
examples from the epochs following his 
first Antwerp period (1613-1621). That is, 
the Italian period, from 1622-1627, repre- 
sented by the painting, "The Triumph of 
the Infant Bacchus"; the second Antwerp 
period 1627-1632, represented by the por- 
trait of the artist's friend, Erycius Puteanus; 
the third, the English period, from 1632- 
1641, represented by three paintings, the 
most outstanding one being "Mary, 
Duchess of Lennox." The "Madonna and 
Child with Five Saints" is the earliest 


composition of this subject which Van Dyck 
executed, having been painted when he 
was about twenty years of age. 1 


Theodor Rombouts 
"The Backgammon Players" 

Different as they otherwise were in their 
conceptions, Rubens and Rembrandt were 
alike in their lack of interest in genre 
painting, that is, in paintings representing 
ephemeral scenes from daily life. Such 
subjects did not come up to the elevated 
level of their spirituality. They exercised, 
however, a strong influence upon the genre 
painters of their period through occasional 
sketches made from nature which corre- 
sponded to the realist tendency in art 
developed in the school of Caravaggio. As 
in Holland, genre painters like Nicolaes 
Maes, the Fabritius brothers, and Pieter 
de Hooch derived from Rembrandt, 
so in Flanders genre painters like Rom- 
bouts, Jan dossiers, and Gerard Seghers 
were greatly influenced by Rubens. It 
corresponded to the monumental style of 
Flemish art that their compositions 
extended to life-sized figures, while the 
Dutch preferred small figures in interiors 
and in landscapes. 

The "Backgammon Players," (Fig. 4), 
is lent by the John Flanagan Buggy Com- 
pany of Greenville, in memory of E. G. 

1 The painting, measuring 44}^ by 37% inches, 
seems to have been for generations in the United States 
and was first located under Rubens's name in the col- 
lection of Mrs. Dickinson, New York. It passed through 
the hands of Knoedlers into those of Jacob Heimann in 
Los Angeles, who sold it to Mr. R. Dispeker, a Swiss 
collector living in Los Angeles. After his death, it was 
acquired by the Schaeffer Galleries, New York, from 
whence it came into the possession of J. B. Ivey and 
Company in Charlotte, North Carolina. It was first 
recognized as a work by the young Van Dyck by the 
present writer (see G. Gliick, Klassiker der Kunst, 1931, 
p. 61, and L. van Puyvelde, Van Dyck, 1950, p. 128). 

Flanagan. One of the most outstanding 
works by Theodor Rombouts, it is a com- 
bination of the genre motif and the group 
portrait, as it represents the artist and his 
family. Also in this respect we are reminded 
of Rubens, who more than once painted 
himself with his wife and children. How 
close Rombouts comes in this conception 
to Rubens is proved by a drawing in the 
Hamburg museum for the little girl in the 
left corner of our painting, which went 
under the name of Rubens until recently, 
when L. Burchard recognized it as a study 
by Rombouts for our painting. 

The works of Rombouts (1597-1637) are 
not sufficiently known, as they are very 
rare. The artist, who died at the age of 
forty, was a pupil of Abraham Janssens 
and began by painting subjects somewhat 
similar to those of Gerard Seghers. His 
"Denial of Saint Peter" in the Liechten- 
stein Gallery, although not a night scene 
should be compared with Seghers's painting 
of the same subject in the North Carolina 
Museum of Art. Early in life Rombouts 
went to Italy (1616) and lived in Rome, 
where he was asked by the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany to come to Florence. In Italy 
he came under Caravaggio's influence and 
painted large life-sized compositions with 
figures in three-quarter length, the subjects 
usually being soldier scenes reminding us 
of the period of the Thirty Years' War 
which still ravaged the Netherlands at 
this period. After his return (1625) the 
influence of Rubens upon his style became 
obvious. Our painting, dated 1634, shows 
this in its fluid technique and brilliant 
color, especially in the costume of the 
soldier on the right dressed in red and yel- 
low. Such colorful costumes can be found at 
the same time in Holland, jwhere Frans 
Hals developed a somewhat similar style 



under the influence of the painters of 
Antwerp, he himself being of Flemish 

Van Dyck painted a portrait of Rom- 
bouts for his Iconography, from which we 
can identify the artist as the soldier to the 
right. As L. Burchard has pointed out, the 
woman is his wife, Anna von Thielen, 
whom he married in 1627; the little girl 
is his daughter. 2 


Sculptures by Francois Duquesnoy 

While Rembrandt's tendency to dis- 
solve the human figure in space was not 
favorable to the creation of sculpture (an 
art which, indeed, played a minor part in 
the Dutch culture), Rubens was nearer to 
the southern conception of art — always 
fond of stressing the volume in the nude or 
draped figure. His paintings appeared at 
their best in relation to the sculptures in 
the baroque churches of his country or 
of Italy. 

Rubens was devoted to sculpture and 
brought with him from Italy a collection 
of classic Greek and Roman art. He also 
kept up the relationship with the Flemish 
sculptors of his time who were either his 
pupils, like Luc Faidherbe, for whom he 
made many sketches to be executed in 
ivory, or friends like Duquesnoy in Rome, 
who was the leading Flemish sculptor 
during Rubens's lifetime. 

That the best Flemish sculptors had left 
their home towns or even their country, 

2 On Theodor Rombouts see A. von Schneider, 
Caravaggio und die Niederldnder, 1933, where the painting 
is reproduced (plate 44b). It comes from a private col- 
lection in Cologne and was recommended to the museum 
by Dr. E. Plietzsch. It measures 65 inches in height 
and 94^ inches in width. The signature and the date 
1634 are on the edge of the backgammon board. 

like Arthur Quellinus who worked mostly 
in Holland, or Duquesnoy who spent his 
life in Italy, was due to some extent to the 
overpowering personality of Rubens. Only 
after his death did an indigenous school of 
sculptors arise in Flanders, with Quellinus 
becoming the head of the Antwerp school, 
and Faidherbe (who was nineteen when 
he entered Rubens's studio in 1636) of 
that of Malines. 

Frangois Duquesnoy became a master 
of the Italian baroque, forming with 
Bernini and Algardi the triumvirate of 
leading sculptors in Rome. While the 
exuberant pictorial style of Bernini seems 
nearer to Rubens, Duquesnoy developed a 
more conservative, classical conception 
which connected him with his friend 
Nicolas Poussin, who lived at that time in 
Rome. But even so, a close relationship 
was maintained between Rubens and 
Duquesnoy, as we learn from a letter 
which Rubens wrote to him a few months 
before he died. The letter is worth being 
reprinted as it speaks for the great admira- 
tion Rubens had for his countryman. 

To Francois Duquesnoy 

I do not know how to express to you my obli- 
gation for the models you have sent me, and for 
the plaster casts of the two putti for the epitaph 
of Van den Eynde in the Chiesa deW Anima. 
Still less can I praise their beauty properly. It 
is nature, rather than art, that has formed them; 
the marble is softened into living flesh. I hear 
the praises for the statue of St. Andrew, just 
unveiled, and I, along with all our nation, 
rejoice and participate in your fame. If I were 
not detained here by age, and by gout which 
renders me useless, I should go there to enjoy 
with my own eyes, and admire the perfection 
of works so worthy. Nevertheless, I hope to see 
you here among us, and that Flanders, our 


beloved country, will one day be resplendent 
with your illustrious works. May this be ful- 
filled before I close my eyes forever, so that I 
may look upon all the marvels of your hand, 
which I kiss most affectionately, praying that 
God may give you long life and happiness. 
Tour most affectionate and obliged servant, 

Peter Paul Rubens 

Antwerp, April 17, 1640 

The statue of Saint Andrew in Saint 
Peter's mentioned in Rubens's letter is one 
of the two works which made Duquesnoy 
famous down to the present day, the 
other being the "Susanna" in Santa Maria 
di Loreto, known to all visitors to Roman 
baroque churches. 

Duquesnoy was a master in bronze 
casting, occupying the same position in 
this respect in seventeenth century Italy 
which another Fleming, Giovanni da 
Bologna, had in the sixteenth century. The 
two small bronze busts (Fig. 5) of the 
"Young Christ" and "The Virgin" (the 
latter being similar to the "Susanna") 
which the museum received as a gift from 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy of Raleigh 
are well documented. Bellori tells us that 
the terra cotta models belonged to Cardinal 
Francesco Barberini and that Duquesnoy 
executed the busts twice in silver, once for 
the Queen of England and once for 

3 Height of the bronze busts is 9 inches, length of the 
marble (somewhat corroded) cupid, 22 inches. On 
Francois Duquesnoy see A. E. Brinckmann, "Barock 
Sculptur" in Handbuch fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1919, pages 
259-261 ; Thieme Becker Lexikon, article by G. G. Sobot- 
ka, 1914; Leo Planiscig, Die Bronzeplastiken (Kunsthis- 
orisches Museum, Wien), 1924. 

Cardinal Camillo Massimi. The bronzes 
exist in several versions, in the Berlin 
and Vienna museums and individually in 
private collections. 

Duquesnoy's fame is based, besides, 
upon the many cupids he created in bronze 
and in marble, the casts of which were used 
by painters of this period everywhere. It 
has been rightly said that, especially in 
his reliefs representing playing cupids, he 
was greatly influenced by Rubens's earlier 
works in which the full forms of children 
are brought out with greater plasticity 
than in his later works. The generous gift 
of Lady Marcia Cunliffe-Owen of New 
York, "The Sleeping Cupid" (Fig. 6), 
gives an excellent idea of Duquesnoy's 
art in depicting children. The motif goes 
back to a late Greek invention, perhaps 
to the bronze original of the third century 
B.C. in the Metropolitan Museum. It was 
repeated in innumerable versions by Roman 
and Renaissance sculptors, one of the most 
famous ones having been made by the 
young Michelangelo in imitation of a 
Roman work. Our example, in marble, 
from Lord Michelham's collection, shows 
the style of the baroque masters, giving the 
resting baby a full, plastic aspect by turn- 
ing it so that its forms can be appreciated 
from all sides, in contrast to the relief-like 
conception of the Renaissance masters. 
Together with a likewise unpublished ex- 
ample by the same master in Wilton House, 
it can be given with probability to Du- 
quesnoy, as in quality it surpasses the many 
works by followers which can be found in 
collections all over Europe. 3 



by W. R. Valentiner 

The North Carolina Museum of Art has 
acquired by gift from Mr. and Mrs. 
W. Lunsford Long a brilliant painting by 
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, 1696-1770, the 
great Venetian painter of the eighteenth 
century, representing the "Banquet of Cleo- 
patra" (Fig. 8), The subject has been taken 
from Pliny, who describes how Cleopatra 
had been making a wager with her lover 
Mark Antony that she would be able to 
spend 100,000 sestertii on one meal, which 
Mark Antony thought impossible. After the 
meal had started with a first course of 
not exceptional splendor, before the second 
course, Cleopatra asked a servant to bring 
in a decanter of vinegar. She then took 
off one of her pearls she had in her ears, 
which were said to be the finest in the 
world, threw it into the vinegar, and 
after it had dissolved, drank the vinegar. 
Before she was able to use the second pearl, 
the judge of the wager, named L. Placus, 
laid fast hold upon it with his hand and 
pronounced that Antony had lost the 

Tiepolo has painted this subject several 
times. The best known versions are those 
of the large panel painting in Melbourne, 
Australia, formerly in the Hermitage in 
Leningrad; and the fresco in the Palazzo 
Labia in Venice. The former was painted 
for the King of Saxony and Poland, King 
August, in 1743-1744 and was acquired by 
the Count Briihl, his minister, from the 

Count Algarotti, a friend of Tiepolo, in 
Venice. The fresco was painted more than 
ten years later in 1757. Our painting is 
closely connected in style with the Mel- 
bourne painting and may be the first 
version, as it shows the donor, probably 
the Count Algarotti or Count Briihl, visible 
to the left behind a column. Another 
interesting portrait figure seen from the 
front is standing in the left foreground. A 
study for this figure exists in black chalk 
published in Old Master Drawings, 1935, 
by the Baron Hadeln. This study is done 
from a bust representing Palma Giovane 
by Alessandro Vittoria, which probably 
was owned by Tiepolo. Possibly Tiepolo 
wanted to show by including this portrait 
of a sixteenth century follower of Paolo 
Veronese the connection of his art with 
that of Veronese which he has followed 
closely in the architectural setting in our 
composition. Our painting was formerly 
in the Prince Leuchtenberg Collection at 
Leningrad and was acquired by Axel 
Beskow, a Swedish collector, who sold it 
to a New York art dealer. It has been 
exhibited frequently in American museums 
and is in excellent state of preservation 
since the old varnish and slight repaint 
have been carefully removed. As Tiepolo 
was not represented in the collection, the 
acquisition of an outstanding work by him 
is of great importance to the museum. 


by W. R. Valentiner 

"The Topers" (front cover) by Goya 
which was presented as a gift by the Mary 
Reynolds Babcock Foundation is the first 
work representing the great Spanish master 
in the North Carolina Museum of Art. 

Two jolly fellows in black Spanish cos- 
tumes and black felt hats are having a good 
time drinking and laughing. One screams 
with laughter, his head turned back, his 
mouth wide open, as he holds up a glass 
filled with claret; the other one, red-faced 
and with full cheeks, grins in satisfaction, 
showing his white teeth to the spectator 
and holding his wineglass before him. 

The painting is a marvel of brilliant 
technique. Although almost in mono- 
chrome, the luminous black of the costumes 
shimmers in all shades from dark purple 
to gray and brown; the wine in the glasses 
and the open mouth of the man to the left 
add touches of red; the collar of the other 
man is dashed in with unmixed white, and 
the background is light gold and silver, 
increasing behind the head of the man to 
the left, where a candle seems to burn, 
training its light upon the fully lighted 
face of the other man. Fleeting silvery 
touches mark the feet of the glasses. 

The motif reminds us (even to the dark 
cherry red of the open mouth of the man 
to the left) of Frans Hals, who often painted 
similar subjects — a proof, by the way, that 
it was not Manet but Goya who redis- 
covered this Dutch master. But the mood 
is quite different. The laughter of Frans 
Hals is optimistic, bouyant — an expression 
of a happy youth. Here there is something 
satirical, self-conscious, even sinister, be- 
hind the wild behavior of the two men, 

who drink so as to drown the troubles of j 
their impoverished world. To represent 
screaming laughter was not easy for an 
old man like Goya, who had little to laugh 
about. However, in this instance, he 
undoubtedly wanted to express his joy in 
living, as the picture was painted after a 
serious illness and is dedicated to his doctor. 

In the background we read in dim 
letters the word "Medico." This indicates 
that he dedicated the painting to the same ! 
doctor, Arrieta, represented with him in i 
the famous self-portrait in Minneapolis. The I 
painting, therefore, not only is a realistic r 
representation, as in the case of Frans " 
Hals, but has a double, symbolic meaning 1 
like many works of Goya. In the self- j 
portrait he represented himself almost 1 
fainting, falling back weakly in his chair, I 
while the doctor supports him, giving him ( 
a glass of wine to drink. Does he mean, in { 
our painting, that the wine is really the 1 
preserver of life, and does he make fun of \ 
the doctor a little? Who knows? 

The year 1819, when our painting was p 
executed, was a fearful one for Goya. ,4 
Being the painter of the court of the f 
tyrannical, cruel and decadent ruler, Ferdi- ir 
nand VII, yet at the same time belonging st 
to the liberal party, his life was in constant G 
danger. When Ferdinand returned (1814) | 
after having been driven out the first time, i 
and was taking gruesome revenge on his m 
enemies, he is supposed to have said to 
Goya, "You deserve to be hanged, but as 
you are a great artist, I will let you go 
free." In 1819 another liberal revolution 
began, which in the next year drove 
Ferdinand out a second time, though 


unfortunately for only three years. For 
Goya, who was 73, it was one of the most 
creative years. He had retired to a small 
country place on the other side of the 
Manzanares near Madrid, called the 
Quinta del Sordo, or house of the deaf 
man (Goya was deaf by this time). Here 
he painted murals, the famous "pitturas 
negras," in a number of the rooms. At 
the same time he was working on his 
great series of etchings, "The Disasters of 
War." In the summer of this year he 
executed two of his most impressive re- 
ligious works, "The Last Communion of 
St. Joseph of Calasanz" and the "Agony 
in the Garden" both in a church in Madrid. 
In contrast, he also worked on paintings 
representing scenes from everyday life: 
"The Forge" in the Frick Collection, "The 
Knife Grinder" in Budapest, and portraits, 
among them the Don Juan Antonio Cuerbo, 
Director of the Royal Academy of San 
Fernando, in the Godfrey S. Rockefeller 
Collection. After this tremendous effort he 
became seriously ill at the end of 1819. 
When he recovered he must have painted the 
Minneapolis self-portrait and our "Topers." 

It is our good fortune that just this great 
period in Goya's life is well represented in 
American collections: "The Forge" in the 
Frick Collection and the Cuerbo portait 
in the Rockefeller Collection, to which 
should be added the great portrait of 
Goya's friend Perez in the Metropolitan 
Museum (1820) and the self-portrait with 
the doctor in Minneapolis. To these comes 
now as a new addition in American col- 

lections "The Topers" in the North Caro- 
lina Museum of Art. 

Common to all these paintings is the 
preference for sombre colors, especially 
black. It is well known that many of the 
great masters came at the end of their 
life to a similar color scheme, in which 
local colors are suppressed. This is true of 
Titian, Tintoretto, Frans Hals, and Rem- 
brandt. Titian remarked in his late years 
that one could express almost everything 
with black and white, which he liked best. 
In Goya's case it went well with his intense 
interest in black and white graphic works, 
which occupied a good deal of his time in 
later life (Disasters of War, Disparates, 

Goya was the last of the great old masters, 
but he was also the first great modern 
one. He has often been praised as the 
father of the impressionists, but in his 
demonic, visionary concept, he is even 
more so the predecessor of great expres- 
sionists like Munch, Nolde and Orozco. 
Thus it is of major importance that his 
art is represented in the North Carolina 
Museum of Art with an example which 
expresses his connection with modern art 
as well as with the old masters. 

"The Topers," reproduced in many 
books on Goya and exhibited frequently, 
comes from the collections of the Due de 
Osuna, Madrid, and the collections Nemes 
and Herzog in Budapest. It has been ex- 
hibited in Budapest (1911) and in Munich 
and Diisseldorf (1912) and in Baltimore 



by May Davis Hill 

An unusual figure on the artistic stage 
at the turn of the ninetenth century was the 
Swiss-born Johann Heinrich Fiissli (1741- 
1825), who adopted the name of Henry 
Fuseli. Although his father was a painter, 
his older brother, not Henry, was chosen 
to carry on the family profession, while 
Henry was required to study for the 
Lutheran ministry. Soon after his ordi- 
nation in 1761, he threw off these shackles 
in favor of a career as a writer. 

His authorship of a bold political pam- 
phlet, which attacked a Zurich official, 
forced Fuseli to leave the town of his birth 
and go in 1763 to Berlin. Here he made 
the acquaintance of the British ambassador 
to the Prussian court, with whom he 
eventually travelled to England in 1764. 
A long-time Anglophile, he quickly adopted 
the English form of his name and became 
a confirmed resident of London. 

Continuing his literary activity, Fuseli 
became associated with the publisher 
Johnson and translated Winckelmann's 
Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the 
Greeks. His interest in classical culture soon 
after reappeared in a defense of Rousseau 
(1767) which was published anonymously. 

From childhood Fuseli had maintained 
a lively interest in art. While pretending 
to study he had used his left hand to make 
drawings which he concealed from his 
tutor, thus becoming ambidextrous (his 
drawings are nearly all left-handed). At 
the encouragement of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
who praised his sketches, Fuseli embarked 
in 1769 on a nine-year sojourn in Italy, 
where Michelangelo and the mannerists 

were his chief sources of study and inspira- 
tion. On his return, even though he con- 
tinued to write, he settled near William 
Blake, who was to become his lifelong 
friend, and soon became known as a history 
painter, much to his liking; among his 
first important works were nine illustrations 
of Shakespeare's works done for BoydelPs 
Shakespeare Gallery (1786 to 1790) and 
other similar projects. He became a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy and eventually 
was to hold (for the first time in its history) 
double offices in it: those of Keeper and 
Lecturer. Throughout his career Fuseli 
maintained his connection with the 
mannerists, emphasizing the weird and 
the fantastic. The painting "The Night- 
mare" (1783) is held to be his most famous 
work, and is typical of his mystical imagery. 

Among his numerous illustrations to 
Shakespeare Fuseli did many from Mac- 
beth, among them several versions of the 
scene on the heath in which the three 
witches appear to Macbeth. The North 
Carolina Museum of Art has just acquired 
an excellent example of Fuseli's treat- 
ment of the subject, through the generosity 
of Mr. and Mrs. Peter P. Williams of 
Raleigh. Dating from the same year as the 
"Nightmare," "The Three Weird Sisters" 
(Fig. 9) is painted in oil on canvas \9 l A 
inches in height and 24 ^ 2 inches wide in 
tones of silver gray with a dark red back 
ground, heightened by the red flames of 
the witches' fire. Three hooded crones are 
seen in profile, looking to the left, each 
with her right fore-finger to her lips, her 
left hand and arm extended pointing to 


the left. Below the pointing fingers (so 
reminiscent of Blake's "Job and His 
Friends") a stick fire burns, while above 
the hands flutters a large death's head 
moth. A supernatural wind seems to blow 
the hair of the first witch forward into the 
firelight, though the flowing sleeves and 
the fire are mysteriously unaffected. 

Specimens of the weird-looking death's 
head moth were much sought in this 
time of classic-romantic notions. Its ap- 
pearance here reminds us that the artist 
and his entire family had a particular 
interest in entomology — a strange one, 
when we recall that Fuseli seldom painted 
from nature. He preferred his own imagi- 
nation over outside sources of inspiration, 
having once remarked, "Damn Nature'— 
she always puts me out." 

Walpole, who was habitually cruel to 
Fuseli's works, was, according to Leslie's 
Reynolds, more merciful toward the "Weird 
Sisters" than his other paintings, saying 
of it, "Not bad, but more like old men 
than old women." Whether we agree with 
Walpole or not, we note that after examin- 
ing all the works of the artist, Walpole ap- 
parently felt this painting to be outstanding. 

There are several known versions of 
Fuseli's "Three Weird Sisters," or "Three 
Witches" as they are called elsewhere. 
One hangs in the Kunsthaus in Zurich, 
the artist's native city; another is in the 
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at 
Stratford-Upon-Avon; and a third, a 
grisaille probably done for one of the 

1 Further information on Fuseli may be found in the 
work of F. Antal, Fuseli Studies, London, 1956; N. Powell, 
The Drawings of Henry Fuseli, London, 1951; R. and S. 
Redgrave, A Century of British Painters, London, 1947. 
The 1806 edition of Pilkington's Dictionary of Painters, 
published by J. Johnson and others, was edited by 

engravings of the painting made by J. H. 
Lips and J. R. Smith, is in the New York 
art market. Compared to the painting in 
Zurich our painting is shortened on the 
left (the pointing fingers are not complete), 
and at the bottom. There is evidence that 
the canvas has been cut down. However, 
Lip's engraving of 1807 and Mitchell's 
lithograph of 1873 are nearer to the 
proportions of our painting. The former 
shows the left edge cut off just beyond the 
tips of the fingers, while the latter cuts off 
the tip of the finger which is farthest 
extended. This would indicate that our 
painting was cut at some time between 
1807 and 1873. 

The subject of this painting is recorded 
in Thieme-Becker Lexikon (XII, 567), in the 
Catalogue of the Royal Academy, London, 
1783, page 4, No. 10, and in J. Frankan's 
work on the lithographer, John Raphael 
Smith, No. 371, page 240 (Smith produced 
a lithograph copy of it in 1873). 

"The Three Weird Sisters" came from 
the collection of Dr. Alfred Ruetenberg 
in Rueschlikon, near Zurich, and was 
bought from the Baden-Baden branch of 
the Berlin art firm Erhardt and Company 
in the 1920's. It came to the United States 
through the Moore firm in London; Mr. 
W. Roberts and Sir Charles Holmes have 
certified it. Antal has pointed out its 
relationship to Rosso, Salviati, and David 
{Fuseli Studies, 1956, p. 39, 77). 1 

Fuseli used the same three pointing 
witches in variant attitudes in another 
painting, "Macbeth Meeting the Witches 
on the Heath" which was also a part of 
BoydelPs Shakespeare Gallery. The simi- 
larity of the representations of the witches 
from painting to painting reminds us that, 
as Antal has pointed out, the artist who 


draws from his own imagination is less 
apt to vary his representations of the same 
subject than the artist who copies models 
from nature. 

Fuseli's vivid and sometimes weird imagi- 
nation is what enlists the public's attention 
today. Not only his subject matter, but 
also the bizarre manner in which he 
chooses to depict it has especially great 

appeal to us now when expressionism comes 
so naturally as a means of communication 
in all the arts. The museum is indeed 
fortunate to own a painting by one of the 
ancestors of modern expressionism. His 
influence on painters from Blake to the 
present may perhaps become more and 
more apparent in later additions to the 



by James B. Byrnes 

The recent gift of the painting, "The 
Sully Children," 1 by the nineteenth cen- 
tury American artist Thomas Sully (1783- 
: 872) is of special significance to our 
museum, since Sully played an important 
role in early North Carolina cultural his- 
tory. The painting (Fig. 10) comes to the 
museum as the gift of Mrs. O. Max Gardner 
of Shelby, North Carolina; before discussing 
it, we might explore briefly the artist's 
background and his special service to this 

Born in Horncastle, Lincolnshire, Eng- 
and in June, 1783, Thomas Sully 2 was 
the youngest son of Matthew and Sarah 
Sully, actors, who with their large band of 
nine children migrated to Charleston, 
South Carolina, late in 1792. Charleston, 
(Charles' Town until 1783), was as early 
,as 1700 considered a place of gaiety and 
a center of music and dancing. A few 
months after the Sullys landed, a new 
theatre was opened, with much pomp and 
ceremony. This event may have persuaded 
the family to take up residence. 

In the bustling seaport town, it was 
quite natural that Thomas was apprenticed 
to an insurance broker at the age of twelve. 

1 "The Sully Children" (Group of five) Oil on 
canvas 55%" x 39". Described: Edward Biddle and 
Mantle Fielding, The Life and Works of Thomas Sully. 
(Philadelphia, Wickersham Press, 1921.) Hereinafter 
;ited as Biddle and Fielding, Thomas Sully. Page 292 
—Cat. No. 1748. "Begun August 3, 1822— finished 
May 21, 1824." Unsigned. Size is given as 44" x 56". 
Account of Pictures. Diary of Thomas Sully, Cat. No. 
1623. "Jane, Blanche, Ellen, Rosalie, Alfred. Group of 
my children for their mother." 

Former collections: Mrs. Charles A. Klink, Germantown, 
Pa. (Purchased in sale— 1872). Mr. Douglas Klink, 
Philadelphia, Pa. (See L'tr. June 19, 1956 -Klink to 
V^alentiner). Gift of Mrs. O. Max Gardner, Shelby, 
V. C. 

2 General reference — Biddle and Fielding, Thomas 
'iully, passim. 

However, a note home from the broker 
to the effect that he ". . . was very indus- 
trious in multiplying figures, (but) they 
are figures of men and women" prompted 
the elder Sullys to send the boy to school, 
where he met Charles Fraser, the miniature 
painter, of whom Sully later wrote, "He 
was the first person that ever took the pains 
to instruct me in the rudiments of art, and 
although himself a mere tyro, his kindness, 
and the progress made in consequence of 
it, determined the course of my future 

At about the time Sully parted company 
with the insurance brokerage, one of his 
younger sisters married a "Mons. Belzons," 
a French refugee and painter of miniatures 
who was living in Charleston. After the 
death of Sully's mother in 1798, he lived 
with this brother-in-law, who, it seems, 
was not as patient and understanding as 
was his friend Fraser. Following a quarrel, 
Thomas is reported to have slept out all 
night rather than return to the Belzons' 
studio, and after debating whether to go 
before the mast, he finally traveled to 
Richmond, Virginia, to join his oldest 
brother Lawrence. Lawrence Sully (1769- 
1803) had married Sarah Annis (1779- 
1867) of Annapolis, Maryland; together 
they had three children, one of whom 
eventually married the artist John Neagle. 

Thomas traveled with the family when 
they moved to Norfolk in 1801, and followed 
them back to Richmond in 1803, where 
after a brief illness Lawrence Sully died. 
Thomas took over the support of his 
widowed sister-in-law, and on June 27, 
1805, they married in Warren County, 


i^orth Carolina Stale L^rar 

North Carolina. 3 A year later in Norfolk, 
a visiting English actor, Thomas Abthorpe 
Cooper, sat to Sully for a portrait; delighted 
with the result, he persuaded the artist to 
move his ready-made family to New York. 
Cooper became a benefactor of the artist 
by going among his acquaintances soliciting 
portrait commissions. A letter of intro- 
duction which Cooper had given him was 
circuitously responsible for Sully's meeting 
with the dean of American painters, 
Gilbert Stuart. The letter recommended 
Sully to the attention of Andrew Allen of 
Boston, who was at the time of its delivery, 
being painted by Stuart. Sully was invited 
to Stuart's studio, where the older artist 
arranged for Sully to paint Isaac P. Davis's 
portrait, which after completion was to be 
presented for Stuart's criticism. "Keep 
what you have got, and get as much as 
you can" was Stuart's cryptic advice. 

Returning to New York, Sully decided 
to move to Philadelphia, where he settled 
in 1808. Except for two trips abroad, he 
was to remain in various studios in the 
"City of Brotherly Love" during his long 

Sully's early training in keeping accounts 
is probably responsible for his careful 
listing of the more than 2,600 paintings 
produced during his seventy-one years of 
painting activity. Begun in 1801, Sully's 
log, titled "An Account of Pictures," 
recorded all of his works and listed their 
value. It is this record to which we are 
indebted for the reconstruction of the 
artist's life. The "Account" lists his first 
portrait in Philadelphia as that of the 
sister of Benjamin Chew Wilcocks. Mr. 
Wilcocks, like Cooper, was also to become 

3 Memorial Exhibition of Portraits by Thomas Sully. 
April 9, 1922— May 10, 1922. (Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts) Page 105. Cat. No. 152. 

a benefactor. Learning of Sully's ambition 
to travel to Europe, Wilcocks persuaded 
six of his friends to post two hundred dollars 
each, which Sully would repay by copy- 
ing masterpieces abroad. In high spirits, 
Sully applied for American citizenship, 
which was granted on May 17, 1809; he 
sailed for Liverpool on June 10. Armed 
with a letter of introduction from the 
Philadelphian, William Rawles, Sully called 
upon the expatriate American painter 
Benjamin West. Always hospitable to young 
artists, West offered to criticize a portrait 
by Sully, despite the fact that the elder 
artist was known not to be "disposed to the 
waste of talent in painting portraits," pre 
ferring to concentrate on "history 
painting," which was sweeping the conti- 
nent at the time. 

Sully chose to paint a portrait of his 
artist friend Charles Bird King, with whom 
he shared a studio during his nine-month 
stay. West advised Sully that his portrait 
"betrayed a lack of knowledge of internal 
structure," and counselled him to study 
osteology! Sully's compliance was to paint 
from the model during the day, and tc 
copy from early anatomical drawings and 
engravings at night. When West learned 
of Sully's difficulty in obtaining permission 
to copy masterpieces in private collections 
to repay his debt, he offered the resource 
of his own collection, permitting the work 
to be taken to Sully's studio to simplify 
the artist's work. From his records we lean 
that Sully copied West's "Pylades anc 
Orestes," a "Holy Family" after Correggio 
and the "Madonna della Sedia" b 
Raphael. During his stay in England 
Sully called upon Sir Thomas Lawrence 
from whom he received instruction ii 
painting. Lawrence's influence on th 
young artist was so great that he wa 


eventually to be referred to as the "Ameri- 
can Sir Thomas Lawrence." 

Back in Philadelphia in 1810, Sully 
settled with his family and hung out his 
shingle as a "History and Portrait Painter." 

On January 11, 1817, the Governor of 
North Carolina, The Honorable William 
Miller, 4 wrote his Philadelphia friend Mr. 
Daniel L. Peck, 5 asking that he recommend 
an artist in his city who could paint two 
portraits of George Washington to hang 
in the House and Senate rooms of the 
State Capitol. Peck recommended Sully, 
who in turn suggested that he would prefer 
to make one full-length portrait of the 
late general, and another showing Wash- 
ington in some "well-known incident in 
the Revolutionary War — for instance, the 
passage of the Delaware preparatory to 
the Battle of Princeton." 6 Sully was given 
permission to carry out the project, 7 copy- 

4 During the term of office of Governor William Miller, 
the State Legislature of North Carolina empowered 
him to commission two paintings and one sculpture of 
George Washington. The resultant works by Sully and 
Canova will be the subject of a forthcoming article. 

6 William Miller, Letter Book 1876-7817. (Department 
of Archives and History, State of North Carolina) 
Pages 214-215. January 11, 1817. William Miller to 
Daniel L. Peck. 

6 Ibid. Page 331. June 3, 1817. Thomas Sully to Gov- 
ernor William Miller. 

7 Ibid. Page 286. April 19, 1817. Miller to Peck. 
Pages 332-333. June 15, 1817. Miller to Sully. 

8 Biddle and Fielding, Thomas Sully. Catalog No. 2616. 
Edgar P. Richardson, American Romantic Painting. 
(New York, E. Weyhe, 1944.) Catalogue No. 33. 
Reproduced Plate 33. 

9 Sully's letter to Governor Miller— June 3, 1817 — 
originallly proposed the size as 10' x 8', which was 
approved. (See L'tr. 332-333, June 15, 1817, Miller to 

10 Raleigh Register, Friday November 27, 1818. 

11 "The Passage of the Delaware" Cat. 63.1079 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Size 146 J 4 x 207 inches. 
Signed and dated 1. r., T. S. (in monogram) "Fecit 
1819." Coll. Hall of Curios, old Boston Museum, 
Tremont Street, Before 1849. E. A. Greenwood, Pro- 
prietor of Old Boston Museum. John Doggett, Dealer 
(After Rejection) According to Dunlap, History of the 
Arts in the U. S. (1918 ed.) two small studies were made 
of the painting. One, purchased by Sir James Wright, 
Edinburgh, the other, by Col. I. Ash of Georgetown, 
S. C. 

Virgil Barker, American Painting. (New York, Mac- 
Millan, 1950.) Page 453. 

ing the Lansdowne portrait of George 
Washington by Gilbert Stuart at Governor 
Miller's suggestion, and painting the 
"Washington at the Passage of the Dela- 
ware," 8 which eventually was not delivered, 
because Sully, not receiving a reply to 
his request for specific dimensions of the 
space allocated, proceeded to paint the 
work on a canvas 12' 5" by 17' 3". 9 

The "Portrait of George Washington," 
Sully's copy after Stuart, still hangs in the 
House chamber of our State Capitol. 
Delivered on November 26, 181 8, 111 il 
survived the fire in the original Capitol in 
June, 1831. Together with the Speaker's 
chair and State records, it was rescued. 

The "Washington at the Passage of the 
Delaware," having proved to be too large, 
was finally sold to a Boston frame maker, 
in 1892 it passed into the possession of the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 11 where il 
has remained. 

Between August 3, 1822, and May 21, 
1824, the period during which Sully 
worked on our canvas, "The Sully 
Children," he lived at 49 George Street, 
(today Sansom Street), in Philadelphia. 

Working on the group portrait of five 
of his nine children over a period of two 
years must have presented some problems 
for the artist. The time lapse may account 
for certain incongruities in the canvas, 
which, happily, like discordant notes in 
music, frequently sharpen the whole com- 
position. For example, the children's ages 
seem to be at variance, some having been 
painted at the beginning of the project and 
others towards the end, two years later. 
Starting from the left, the ages of the sitters 
descend in clockwise fashion. Jane Cooper, 
the oldest daughter, born in 1807, appears 
to be at maturity; possibly she was painted 
in 1824 when she was seventeen. Blanche, 


who peeks over Jane's shoulder, born in 
1814, may also have been inserted in 1824, 
when she would have been ten. However, 
shy Ellen cannot be more than six — having 
been born in 1816, she must have been 
painted in the first phase of the work in 
1822. Rosalie Kemble, the charming Pan, 
hovers between the ages of four and six; 
born in 1818, her portrait was possibly 
started in 1822 and finished in 1824. Finally, 
baby Alfred, who sleeps in a Correggiesque 
manner, was born in 1820, and was 
undoubtedly finished in 1822 at the age 
of two. 

The sharpest contrast in the painting is 
that of Jane, whose classical profile in the 
shadow of the room has overtones of 
academic prettiness, whereas Rosalie, who 
dances with the flute on the terrace, is 
almost an echo of the eighteenth century 
English painter Sir William Beechey. 

Of all his children, Sully seemed to favor 
Blanche (1814-1898). When Sully was 
commissioned to paint Queen Victoria 12 
by the Philadelphia Society of the Sons of 
St. George in 1838, he took Blanche to 
England with him, where she often acted 
as a stand-in when the forty-pound regalia 
became too heavy for the Queen. 

After the death of her mother in 1867, 
Blanche took care of her father until his 
death in 1872; she survived him by twenty- 
six years, finally passing away at the age 
of 84. 

Jane Sully (1807-1877), the oldest 
daughter, also painted portraits, many of 
which her father retouched. In 1833 she 

12 Biddle and Fielding, Thomas Sully. Catalog items; 
1853, Page 304-1856, Page 305. A version of the painting 
"Queen Victoria in Robes of State" was presented to 
the St. Andrew's Society of Charleston, S. C. 

married William Henry W. Darley, brother 
of the illustrator Felix Darley. 

Ellen Oldmixon Sully (1816-1896), the 
retiring subject in our portrait, married 
John Hill Wheeler (1806-1882) on 
November 8, 1838. Wheeler is the author 
of Historical Sketches of North Carolina, 
published in Philadelphia in 1851. He 
also served as United States Minister to 
Nicaragua (1854-1857). 

Rosalie Kemble (1818-1847), our spirited 
wood-sprite, may have received her name 
from the Kemble family, close friends of 
Sir Thomas Lawrence. "Fanny Kemble," 
granddaughter of Sarah Siddons, came to 
the United States in 1832, where she 
gained fame as an actress. Sully painted 
thirteen portraits of her in various theatrical 

Alfred (1820-1879), youngest son of the 
artist, graduated from West Point in 1841. 
He was assigned to the Second Infantry, 
which was engaged in war with the Semi- 
nole Indians. In 1853 he was involved 
with operations against the Rouge River 
Indians, and in 1860 against the Cheyennes. 
During the War Between the States, he 
was variously assigned in Fair Oaks, 
Malvern Hill, and Chancellorsville. At the 
close of the war he was brevetted Major 
General of the Volunteers and Brigadier 
General in the Regular Army. In 1850 he 
married Manuella Zimeno, of Monterey, 
California, and in 1864 he again married; 
his second wife was Henrietta Wilson of 

We are most pleased to possess this 
early painting by Sully. The artist himself 
prized it highly, since only seventeen of 
his twenty-six hundred and thirty works 
were listed by him at a greater amount 

than the original five hundred dollar value 
of our canvas. 13 Most of Sully's critics 
agree that his best works date before 1830, 
as does ours; after that date his work 
became superficially slick and formless. 
His female portraits suffered from over- 
prettiness, and it would appear that for 
the forty-odd years he was to live, his 

13 Sully's prices averaged from ten dollars to one 
hundred for smaller portraits. Larger works ranged up 
to four hundred dollars. The highest value he placed on 
a work was for the "Queen Victoria" given to Charles- 
ton, S. C, valued at two thousand dollars. 

14 Text of letter inscribed on page with drawing of 
boy with a cat, by Thomas Sully. Anonymous gift. 
My dear Sir 

I have a sincere desire to comply with your/ 
request; but I am so little in the habit of making sketches 
in/pencil, fit to keep company with the works of those 
gentlemen w(ho)/have contributed to your collection; 
that I have great diffidence/in sending you the above 
scratch. It was taken from nature/and I should be glad 
for your sake it were better. 

With respect 
Your Obt St. 
Thos S(ully) 

(Char)les Lansmace (?) Esq. 
Phila June 15th 1849 

portraits were "pot-boilers," with no inner 
fire. One wonders had Sully interpreted 
West's criticism of his work as "evidencing 
lack of knowledge of inner structure" 
philosophically rather than anatomically, 
whether he might not have become a 
greater artist. We know that Sully was 
conscious of his lack of skill in drawing, 
for in a letter of 1849 in our collection he 
writes "... am so little in the habit of 
making sketches in pencil, fit to keep 
company with the works of those gentlemen 
who have contributed to your collection." 14 
Despite the lack of success of the work 
of his late years, the period in which he is 
represented in North Carolina reflects the 
best of his art, connecting it with the older 
generation of painters, Charles Willson 
Peale, Ralph Earl, and Gilbert Stuart, 
all of whom passed away before the close 
of the Federal Era in 1830. 



by Ben F. Williams 

Among the twenty-three paintings re- 
ceived by the North Carolina Museum of 
Art since its opening April 6, 1956, ten 
are of the twentieth century. They give an 
idea of some of the important movements 
of modern art. German impressionism, 
which followed the better known French 
impressionism, is represented by four 

Hans Thoma (1839-1924) is called a 
German realist; however, his later works 
are impressionistic and it is one of these, 
"Sunset" of 1917, that has been given by 
Mr. Walter Lowry of New York. Mr. 
Lowry has given two other German impres- 
sionist paintings; a late painting by Wilhelm 
Triibner (1851-1917) "Schloss Hemsbach" 
and a painting of 1913, "Landscape with 
Village and Mountains," by Max Slevogt 
(1868-1932). Max Liebermann (1847- 
1934), recognized leader of the German 
impressionists movement, is represented by 
"Park Scene," 1911, gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter L. Wolf, of New York. This painting 
represents the turning point of German 
impressionism which had always been more 
emotional and symbolic than French im- 
pressionism and points the way to German 
expressionism, of which the museum has 
yet to acquire its first work. 

Benjamin Kopman (born 1887) came to 
America from Russia at a very early age. 
As a painter and illustrator his work has 
reflected the style of Chagall and the 
German expressionists. The painting 
"Autumn Landscape," gift of Bertram and 
Edyth Latham Bloch of New York, shows 
the influence of Soutine. 

Mr. Roy Neuberger's gift of "Blue 
Landscape" (Fig. 12) by Milton Avery 
(born 1893) is a welcomed addition, from 
the contemporary American school. In 
this flat patterned, slightly distorted land- 
scape Avery has not destroyed the reality 
of the scene but has added a whimsical 
feeling that is so characteristic of his work. 

"Seated Figure" by Robert Goodnough 
will be added to the contemporary Ameri- 
can section of the museum after it is intro- 
duced in the exhibition "Panel's Choice" 
to be held in the North Carolina Museum 
of Art April 2-24, 1957. The painting, 
a gift of Mr. James I. Merrill, New York, 
represents one of the latest developments 
in American art. 

"Painting No. 10" by George Bireline, 
"Provincetown Memories" by Edith Lon- 
don, and "Regional Landscape No. 5" 
by Grove Robinson were acquired by the 
museum from the 1956 North Carolina 
Artists' Exhibition. Since 1946 thirty works 
have been added to the museum's col- 
lection of North Carolina art through the 
annual purchase awards provided by the 
North Carolina State Art Society. 

It would be presumptuous to make 
complete judgment on any contemporary 
period or style of art, yet, if the museum 
is to be a vital factor in the life of the 
community, it must establish criteria for 
its selection of modern works. A collection 
of modern art requires even more connois- 
seurship in its assemblage than that of 
older art, for the "natural selection" which 
time offers is not present. The presage of 
the acceptance of modern art is with those 


whose discriminating eyes select the works 
to be shown in the museum. 

Those who selected the initial collection 
of paintings which opened in the North 
North Carolina Museum last April have 
set high standards which should be observed 

in all collections. There are basic elements 
common to art of all periods, and it is 
hoped that the collection of modern art 
which is now in its beginning stages will 
develop along the same lines of quality 
as those collections of older art. 


April 6, 1956 to February 6, 1957 

American Paintings 

Benjamin Kopman (born 1887), 
"Autumn Landscape. " Gift of Bertram 
and Edyth Latham Bloch, New York 
(G. 56. 21.1). Canvas, h:26, w:36 inches. 

Unknown American, about 1840, "Por- 
trait of Anne Taylor Busbee." Anonymous 
gift (G.56.29.1). Panel, h:30, w:25}/ 2 inches. 

Thomas Sully (1783-1872), "The Sully 
Children." Gift of Mrs. O. Max Gardner, 
Shelby (GL.56.25.1, former loan). Canvas, 
h:55 3 4 . w:39 inches. Coll.: Mrs. 
Charles A. Klink, Germantown, Pennsyl- 
vania, from 1872; Mr. Douglas Klink, 
Philadelphia. Lit.: Diary of Thomas Sully, 
cat. no. 1623; E. Biddle and M. Fielding, 
Thomas Sully, Philadelphia, 1921, p. 292. 

Milton Avery (born 1893), "Blue Land- 
scape." Gift of Mr. Roy Neuberger, New 
York (G. 57. 1.1). Canvas, h:34, w:53 inches. 
Signed and dated 1946. Exhib.: California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, 1948. 

Robert Goodnough, "Seated Figure." 
Gift of Mr. James I. Merrill, New York 
(G. 57. 3.1). Canvas, h:48>i w:48 inches. 

George Bireline (contemporary), "Paint- 
ing No. 10." Purchase award, North 
Carolina Artists' Annual Competition 
(56.28.3). Canvas, h:48, w:48 inches. 

Edith London (contemporary), "Pro- 
vincetown Memories." Purchase award, 
North Carolina Artists' Annual Compe- 
tition (56.28.1). Canvas, h:23 3 4 , w:30 

Grove Robinson (contemporary), "Re- 
gional Landscape No. 5." Purchase award, 

North Carolina Artists' Annual Compe- 
tition (56.28.2). Casein on panel, h:19, 
w:48 inches. 

European Paintings 

Hans Thoma (German, 1839-1924), 
"Sunset." Gift of Mr. Walter Lowry, New 
York (G. 56. 10.1). Canvas, h:31 Y 2 , w:39^ 
inches. Signed and dated 1917. 

Wilhelm Triibner (German, 1851-1917), 
"Schloss Hemsbach." Gift of Mr. Walter 
Lowry, New York (G. 56. 10. 2). Canvas, 
h:243^, w:31 3^ inches. Signed. 

Max Slevogt (German, 1868-1932), 
"Landscape With Village and Mountains." 
Gift of Mr. Walter Lowry, New York 
(G. 56. 10.3). Canvas, h:23^9, w:31 Y? inches. 
Signed and dated 1913. 

Antoine Vestier (French, 1740-1824), 
"Mile. Baillot." Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Reuben B. Robertson, Asheville (G. 56. 9.1). 
Canvas, h:36}9, w:29 inches. Coll.: 
Baron E. de Beurnonville, Paris; private 
American collector. 

Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes 
(Spanish, 1746-1828), "The Topers." 
Painted in 1819. Gift of the Mary Reynolds 
Babcock Foundation, Reynolda (G. 56. 13.1). 
Canvas, h:39%, w:31 x /i inches. Inscribed 
above center: MEDIC[0]. Coll.: Dr. 
Arrieta (?); the Duke of Osuna, Madrid; 
M. Marczell de Nemes, Budapest; Baron 
Mdr Lipdt Herzog, Budapest; Baron Andre 
Herzog, Budapest. Exhib.: Museum der 
Schonen Kiinste, Budapest, before 1911; 
Alte Pinakothek, Munich, 1911 (cat. 5); 
Stadt. Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, 1912 (cat. 


78); Baltimore Museum of Art, 1954 (cat. 
86). Lit.: Ignacio de Beryes, La vida y los 
cuadros de Goya, Barcelona [n. d.]; Albert F. 
Calvert, Goya, An Account of His Life and 
Works, London, 1908, plate 237; Gabriel 
von Terey, "Die Sammlung Marczell von 
Nemes in Budapest," h'unst und Kunstler, 
IX, 220, 221; Gabriel Mourey, "La Col- 
lection Marczell de Nemes," Les arts, XII, 
14, 20; A. de Beruete y Moret, Goya 
composiciones y fiquras, Madrid, 1917, II, 166, 
no. 173; August L. Mayer, Francisco de Goya, 
London, 1924, p. 160, plate 256, p. 182, 
no. 673; X. Desparmet Fitz-Gerald, 
Voeuvre peint de Goya, Paris, 1928-50, II, 
274; Emiliano M. Aguilera, La vida y los 
cuadros de Goya, Barcelona, 1952, plate 68. 

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (Italian, 1696- 
1770), "The Banquet of Cleopatra." Gift 
of Mr. and Mrs. W. Lunsford Long, 
Warrenton (G. 56. 15.1). Canvas, h:32, w:51 
inches. Coll.: Prince Leuchtenberg, 
Munich; Axel Beskow, Stockholm and Los 
Angeles. Exhib.: Portland, Oregon, 1936, 
cat. 16. 

Ferdinand Bol (Dutch, 1616-1680), "The 
Sacrifice of Manoah." Gift of Mr. Robert 
Badenhop, Newark, Newjersey (G. 56. 20.1). 
Panel, h:28, w:213 2 inches. Exhib.: 
"Rembrandt and His Pupils," The North 
Carolina Museum of Art, 1956, cat. 5. 

1 Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto 
(Italian, 1518-1594), "The Forge of Vul- 
can." About 1545-48. Lent by Mr. and 
Mrs. W. Lunsford Long, Warrenton. 
(L.56.15.2). Canvas, h:30^, w:52^ inches. 
Coll.: Friedlander-Fuld, to 1919; S. Ogdan 
Steinhardt, Paris. Exhib.: Kaiser-Friedrich- 
Museums-Verein, Berlin, Akademie der 
Kiinst, 1925 (cat. 397). 

1 Only long-term loans are listed. 

Henry Fuseli (English, 1741-1825), "The 
Three Weird Sisters." 1783. Gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. Peter P. Williams, Raleigh 
(G.56.34.1). Canvas, h:l 9 w:24 1 2 inches. 
Coll.: Dr. Alfred Ruetenberg, Ruechlikon 
(near Zurich). Exhib.: Royal Academy, 
London, 1783, cat. 10. Engr.: John Raphael 
Smith, 1785 (mezzotint) ; J. H. Lips, 1807; 
E. H. Mitchell, 1873 (lithograph). Lit.: 
Thieme Becker Lexikon, XII, 567; 
J. Frankan, John Raphael Smith, no. 371, 
p. 240. 

Jan Cossiers (Flemish, 1600-1671) [attrib- 
uted to], "Gypsy Subject." Gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. James Payne Beckwith, Warren- 
ton, in memory of Blanche Caldwell 
Beckwith (G.56.35.1). Canvas, h:23^, 
w:29 inches. 

Max Liebermann (German, 1847-1934), 
"Park Scene." Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter L. Wolf, New York (G.57.7.1). 
Canvas, h:21, w:293^ inches. Signed and 
dated '11. 

1 Theodor Rombouts (Flemish, 1597- 
1637), "The Backgammon Players." Lent 
by the John Flanagan Buggy Company, 
Greenville, in memory of E. G. Flanagan 
(L. 57. 2.1). Canvas, h:65 w:94 1 2 inches. 
Signed and dated 1634. Coll.: Private 
collection, Cologne. Lit.: A. von Schneider, 
Caravaggio und die Niederldnder. 1933, p. 109 
and plate 446. 

1 Anthony van Dyck (Flemish, 1599- 
1641), "Madonna and Child with Five 
Saints." Painted 1618-21. Lent by J. B. 
Ivey and Company, Charlotte, in honor 
of J. B. Ivey (L. 56. 36.1). Panel, h:44! 2 , 
w:373^2 inches. Coll.: Mrs. Dickinson, 
New York; Mr. R. Dispeker, Los Angeles. 
Lit.: G. Gliick, Klassiker der Kunst, 1931, 
p. 61; L. van Puyvelde, Van Dyck, 1950, 
p. 128. 


'John Constable (English, 1776-1837), 
"The Old Mill at Suffolk (Near Col- 
chester)." Lent by Mr. Ernest V. Horvath, 
New York (L. 57. 4.1.). Panel, h:ll%, 
w:10J4 inches. Coll.: James Orrock; A. T. 
Hollingsworth. Exhib.: Grosvenor Gallery, 
1888; Winter Exhibition (New Gallery), 
1897-98. Lit.: A. Graves, A Century of Loan 
Exhibitions, 7813-7912, I, 197, no. 68, and 
IV, 1842, no. 193. 

Antonis Mor, called Antonio Moro 
(Dutch, 1519-1576), "Portrait of a Man." 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Price, Greens- 
boro (G. 55. 4.1). Panel, h:48, w:35 inches. 
Coll.: The Earl of Yarborough, Brocklesby, 
Lincolnshire; J. Horace Harding, New York; 
A. F. Philips, Eindhoven, Holland, 1941. 
Exhib.: British Institution, London, 1850; 
Manchester, 1857; National Portrait Exhi- 
bition, South Kensington Museum, Lon- 
don, 1866, and Royal Academy, London, 
1875, 1903 (as "Walter Devereux, Earl of 
Essex"); London, 1924; Burlington House, 
London, 1927 (cat., Conway, p. 94); 
California Palace of The Legion of Honor 
and M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco, 1939-40. Lit.: G. F. Waagen, 
Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain, 
IV, 1857, p. 64; G. F. Waagen, Treasures 
of Art in Great Britain, II, 1854, p. 87; 
Charles Blanc, Les tresors de Fart a Man- 
chester, 1857, p. 154; W. Burger, Tresors 
d'art, 1857, p. 174; Lionel Cust, "Notes on 
Pictures in the Royal Collection, etc.," 
Burlington Magazine, XVIII p. 11; Max J. 
Friedlander, Die altniederldndische Malerei, 
XIII, 1934, no. 405, p. 176, plate 76; 

H. E. van Gelder in Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek, 

I, 1948. 

Donatello (Italian, 1386-1466), Madonna 
and Child, Polychrome Relief (stucco on 
wood). Anonymous gift (G.56.8.1). H:27, 

1 Only long-term loans are listed. 

w:26 inches. Coll.: Stefano Bandini, Wer- 
ner Weisbach, Berlin. Lit.: Paul Schu- 
bring, Donatello (Klassiker der Kunst), 
Stuttgart, 1922, p. 167. 

Bust of Julius Caesar (bronze and mar- 
ble). Italian, 17th century. Gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. H. A. Maconochie, Asheville 
(G. 56. 11.1). Height 24 H inches. 

Relief, Madonna and Child (ivory). 
French, about 1500. Anonymous gift 
(G.56.12.2). Height 4J 2 inches. 

Francois Duquesnoy (Flemish, 1594- 
1643), "Sleeping Cupid" (marble). Gift 
of Lady Marcia Cunliffe-Owen, New York 
(G. 56. 23.1). Length 22 inches. Coll.: Lord 

Gutzon Borglum (American, 1867-1918), 
Cast of Head. Gift of Mrs. John G. Tyndall, 
Washington, North Carolina (G. 56. 26.1). 

Hercules (marble). Roman, 2nd century 
A.D. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Jack Linsky, 
New York (GL. 55. 11.2, former loan). 
Height 66 inches. 

Plaque representing Saturn (bronze). 
Italian, 17th century, School of Bernini. 
Gift of Mr. William Wilson, New York 
(G. 57. 6.1). Length 18J4 inches. 

St. Catherine (bas relief, marble). Naples, 
School of Tino da Camaino, 14th century. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. W. Lunsford Long, 
Jr., Raleigh (G. 56. 33.1). Diameter21 inches. 

1 Two Baroque Angels (marble). Prob- 
ably parts of an altar. Italian, 17th century. 
Anonymous loan (L. 57. 5.1 and .2). Height 
42 and 43 inches. Coll.: Frank Gair 
Macomber; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

St. Magdalene (limestone). French, 14th 
century. Gift of Mr. Anthony J. Pisani, 
New York (G.56.32.1). Height 43 inches. 

Francois Duquesnoy, (Flemish 1594- 
1643), Two Busts (bronze). "The Virgin" 
and "The Young Christ." Gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, Jr., Raleigh 
(G.56.22.1 and .2). Height 9 inches. 


Decorative Arts and Others 

Three Urns. Etruscan, fifth century B. C. 

Two Sheraton Showcases (G. 56. 11.5 and 

Three Queen Anne chairs (G. 56. 11.8- 

Spinette. English, 18th century 

Oak Table. Elizabethan (G. 56.1 1 .12). 

Five Chairs. Spanish, 17th century 
(G.56.1 1.13-.17). 

Panel with Woodcuts. Japanese (G.56.- 

The above objects gifts of Mr. and Mrs. 
H. A. Maconochie, Asheville. 

Miniature Representing a Prince on 
Horseback. India (Mogul), about 1650. 
Anonymous gift (G. 56. 12.1). On paper, 
h:16^g, w:113/g inches. 

Animal and Bird Rug. Indian, 17th 
century. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph L. 
Eastwick, Bridgeport, Pennsylvania (G.56.- 

Cope (red velvet). Italian, 16-1 7th cen- 
tury. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Maco- 
nochie, Asheville (G.56.1 1.18). 

Letter and Drawing by Thomas Sully 
(American, 1783-1872), '^Boy With a Cat." 
1849. Anonymous gift (G.56. 12.3). 

Velvet Hanging. Genoese-Spanish, 17th 
century. Gift of Mr. George Poland, 
Raleigh (G.56. 24.1). 

Fan. Spanish, 19th century. Gift of Miss 
Emily Pollard, Chapel Hill (G.56.27.1). 

1 Napoleonic Clock (L.56.1 1 .21). 
1 Two Mirror Panels. Dutch, 17th cen- 
tury (L.56.1 1.19 and .20). 

The above objects lent by Mr. and Mrs. 
H. A. Maconochie, Asheville. 

1 Only long-term loans are listed. 

Two Chairs. Venetian, 18th century 
(G.56.31.1 and .2). 

Two Chairs. French, 18th century 
(G.56. 31. 3 and .4). 

Four Plates. Rhodes, 16- 17th century 

The above objects gifts of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur L. Erlanger, New York. 

Vase. Roman, about 100 B.C. (G.56. 35. 2). 

Figure (idol). Greek, about 600 B.C. 
(G.56. 35. 3). 

Vase. Greek Cypriote, about 700 B.C. 
(G.56. 35.4). 

Two Pitchers. Roman, about 100 B.C. 
(G.56. 35. 5 and .6). 

Head. Greek, about 600 B.C. (G.56. 35. 7). 

Figure. Greek, about 700 B.C. (G.56.- 

35.8) . 

Figure. Greek, about 400 B.C. (G.56.- 

35.9) . 

Three Vases. Greek, about 200-400 B.C. 
(G.56. 35. 10-. 12). 

The above objects (all terra cotta) gifts 
of Mr. and Mrs. James Payne Beckwith, 
Warrenton, in memory of Blanche Caldwell 

Two Doors. Venetian, 18th century 
(unacc). Gift of Mrs. Byron Foy, New 

Covered Crock. American, 18-1 9th cen- 
tury. Gift of Miss Iola Moore, Raleigh 
(G.56. 30.1). 

Table. Ligurian, 16th century. Anony- 
mous gift (G. 57. 8.1). 


A large and valuable collection of books 
on art has been given the museum library 
by Mr. and Mrs. Walter Ross of New York. 
It consists of many hundreds of monographs 
on artists, general works on the art of 


various periods and countries, catalogues 
of outstanding collections, sale catalogs, 
and valuable sets of encyclopedias and 
directories. An interesting item is the 1806 
edition of Pilkington's Dictionary of Painters, 
edited by Henry Fuseli (see p. 15«). In 

January 771 items had arrived, and this 
comprises less than half the collection. 
This material is extremely useful in the 
work carried on in the museum and in 
aiding the researcher who comes from 
outside seeking information. 


7 ig. 1. Donatello (Italian, 1386-1466), Madonna and Child. Polychrome stucco, panel, 27 x 26 inches. 
Anonymous gift. 

Fig. 3. Anthony van Dyck (Flemish, 1599-1641), Madonna and Child With Five Saints. Panel, 
443^ x 37^2 inches. 

I On extended loan to the museum from J. B. Ivey and Company, Charlotte, North Carolina, 
in honor of J. B. Ivey. 

Fig. 5. Two Busts by Francois Duquesnoy (Flemish, 1594-1643): The Young Christ and The Virgin. 
Bronze, height 9 inches. 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, Jr., Raleigh. 

Fig. 6. Sleeping\Cupid (marble, length 22 inches), by Frangois Duquesnoy (Flemish, 1594-1643). 
Gift of Lady Marcia Cunliffe-Owen, New York. 

Fig. 7. Ferdinand Bol. (Dutch, 1616-1680), The Sacrifice of Manoah. Panel, 28 x 2\y 2 inches. 
Gift of Mr. Robert Badenhop, Newark, New Jersey. 

Fig. 11. John Constable (English, 1776-1837), The Old Mill at Suffolk. Canvas, 11% x 10^ inches. 
On extended loan to the museum from Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Horvath, New York. 


Board of Directors of the State Art Society 

Governor Luther H. Hodges Honorary President 

Robert Lee Humber President 

Edwin Gill Vice-President 

Mrs. James H. Cordon Treasurer 

Vice-Presidents at Large Elected 

Mrs. Frank Taylor Dr. Clarence Poe 

Mrs. Jacques Busbee Mrs. Isabelle Henderson 

Mr. John V. Allcott Dr. Clemens Sommer 

Mr. Egbert L. Davis 
Appointed by the Governor , , TT T „ 

Mr. Henry L. Bridges 

Dr. Sylvester Green Mr Gregory Ivy 

Mrs. Charles Cannon Mrs j H B Moore 

Mr. Ralph C. Price Mrs Elizabeth Hamrick Mack 

Ex Officio 

Hon. Luther H. Hodges Governor of North Carolina 

Dr. Charles M. Carroll State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Mr. George B. Patton Attorney General 

Mrs. C. B. Clegg Fine Arts Chairman, North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs 

Staff of the Museum 

Dr. W. R. Valentiner Director 

James B. Byrnes Associate Director 

Ben F. Williams Curator 

May Davis Hill Librarian and Registrar 

William T. Beckwith Budget Officer 

Peggy Jo Kir by Secretary to Director 

Peggy Noblin Secretary 

Margaret Burns Sales Desk- 
James Long Preparator 

Branton L. Olive Head Museum Guard 


Hours: Open Tuesdays through Saturdays 10-5; Sundays 2-6; Closed Mondays. 
Telephone: TE-4-3611, Ext. 7569. 

Tours: May be scheduled upon advance written request. 

(Membership in the North Carolina State Art Society (until June 30, 1957): Annual $2.00; 
||Contributor $5.00; Patron $10.00; Life $100.00. 


APRIL 2 through APRIL 24. "PANEL'S CHOICE." An exhibition of some twenty- 
five paintings and sculptures by leading American artists. This is a specially assembled 
exhibition, jointly sponsored by the museum and the Woman's College of the University 
of North Carolina in Greensboro. The works in the exhibition represent artists selected 
by Grace Hartigan, artist, Thomas Hess of Art News, and Ibraim Lassaw, sculptor, who 
will be members of a panel discussion to be held at the Woman's College on March 14 
15 and 16. The exhibition will be on view at the Woman's College, Greensboro, March 8 
through March 28 and at the North Carolina Museum of Art, April 2 through April 24 

MAY. To be announced. 

SCULPTORS. An exhibition originally assembled by E. and A. Silberman Galleries in 
New York in connection with the Museum of Modern Art for the benefit of the British 
Council Fine Arts Collection. The exhibition will comprise thirty-three works by such 
leading British artists as Henry Moore, Francis Bacon, Jacob Epstein, Graham Suther- 
land, and Ben Nicholson. 

A few special lectures and panel discussions are planned. 

IN PROSPECT. ART RENTAL GALLERY. A two-week exhibition of original works 
of art by today's leading artists, which will be available for purchase with a two month's 
rental period. This will permit the public to live with an original work of art before 
considering its acquisition. Rental fees will range from $2.50 to $17.50 for two months. 
A registration fee of $1.00 will be charged. Sales prices of the works will range from 
$25.00 to $500.00. Details will be announced. 



Nonprofit Organization 


Permit No. 453 

North Carolina Stste Library 
Technical Service Division 
Box 2rfd9 

Summer 1957 



Volume I 

Summer 1957 

Number 2 


A Madonna by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri 1 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Allegorical Portrait of Rachel Ruysch 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Representations From the Old Testament in the Museum's Collection of Paintings 9 

By May Davis Him, 

A Review of Three Exhibitions of Modern Art in the Museum 16 

By James B. Byrnes 

Opening of Four New Galleries of Early Sculpture and Decorative Arts 21 

Registrar's Report of New Acquisitions, February 7 to July 15,1957 24 

Illustrations of New Acquisitions 27 

Cover: Berlinghiero Berlinghieri (Italian, active Lucca, 1228-1243), Madonna and Child 
Canvas over panel, 28^ x 1934 inches. Anonymous extended loan. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin is published quarterly. Copyright, 1957, by the North Carolina Museum 
of Art, 107 East Morgan Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Subscriptions SI. 00 a year. Single copies $.25. Sent free 
to North Carolina State Art Society members. Four weeks' notice required for change of address. 


By W. R. Valentiner 

A museum collection which has been 
assembled with the intention of giving to 
the public a survey of the art of European 
painting from the origin of panel painting 
to our time should not fail to start with a 
representation of the beginning of this 
art in the thirteenth century. This poses a 
difficult problem for a newly created 
museum, as examples of panel paintings 
of the first half of this century, the height 
of the Romanesque period, are extremely 
rare. Thanks to the generosity of an anony- 
mous patron, our museum is fortunate to 
be able to add to its exhibits an outstanding 
work by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri of Lucca, 
whose few known works can be dated 
between 1228 and 1243. 

Pisa and Lucca, the first Tuscan cities 
to produce great schools of sculpture and 
painting, were imperial strongholds, well 
ahead in worldly power and artistic culture 
of Florence, which belonged to the opposite 
camp. Frederick II (1200-1250), the great- 
est political figure of the thirteenth century, 
from whose court in Apulia Nicola Pisano 
seems to have come, was still alive when 
the first panel paintings in Pisa (by Giunta 
Pisano) and in Lucca (by the Berlinghieri) 
were created (about 1230-50). It was not 
until the second half of this century that 
Florence came to the fore with such 
outstanding masters as Coppo di Mar- 
covaldo and the Magdalen master. 

The innovation of panel painting, that 
is, of a type of painting separated from the 
wall and becoming an entity in itself, was 
connected with the increasing intensity of 
religious life radiating from the greatest 

reformer of the Middle Ages, the mystic 
and poet Francis of Assisi (died 1226). 
The Franciscans remained in obedience to 
the Pope as an order but created their own 
churches, in which altarpieces dedicated 
to the founder, crucifixes, and Madonna 
tabernacles soon abounded. Their order 
was also welcomed by the imperial world 
power, as Frederick II recognized their 
social and political influence. It is, there- 
fore, not astonishing if we find the first 
symbolic portraits of Saint Francis appear- 
ing at the same time in central Italy near 
the realm of the Pope (Subiaco) and in 
Lucca where Bonaventura Berlinghieri, the 
son of Berlinghiero, created perhaps the 
most impressive representation of the saint 
in a large altarpiece in Pescia (1235). 
Earlier panel paintings even than these 
altarpieces are the Triumphal crucifixes of 
enormous size which, sometimes as early 
as the twelfth century (the earliest known 
in Sarzana in 1138), were placed upon the 
beams dividing the nave from the choir 
in Romanesque churches, and the smaller 
crucifixes carried in processions. The only 
signed work by the old Berlinghiero is a 
large crucifix of this type, now in the 
Pinacoteca in Lucca. Also appearing at 
about the same time are representations 
of the enthroned Madonna enframed by 
smaller scenes from the life of Christ to 
be placed upon the altars, or the Madonna 
in half-length holding the Child in her 
arms, like the newly acquired painting in 
our museum, whose correct attribution 
and date (1235-40) comes from the best 
connoisseur on this subject, Richard Offher. 

The style of these early panel paintings 
is still closely related to that of the mural 
paintings and mosaics, which formed the 
church decorations in the earlier Middle 
Ages. They show the same flatness, in 
which the wall surface is stressed, their 
clear outlines, which bring out the forms 
for a distant view, and their bright local 
colors, which remind us of stained glass 

Madonna and Child from Santa Maria del 
Popolo, Rome. Byzantine, about 1200. 

1 In panel paintings which are well preserved, for 
instance in the crucifixion in the style of Guido da 
Siena in Yale University (R. Offner, Italian Primitives 
at Tale, No. 26), this influence of stained glass windows 
is especially noticeable in the kaleidoscopic juxtaposition 
of brilliant scarlet, purple, lapis lazuli, and lighter 
shades of the same colors. 

2 It was probably painted in Byzantium about 1200 
(see E. Lavagnino, Santa Maria Del Popolo, Rome, 
1925, p. 40) like the Byzantine enthroned Madonna in 
the National Gallery, Washington, and in the Otto H. 
Kahn collection. Hodegetria refers to the type of Madonna 
which represents the Mother with the Child on her 
arm in a seated position. 

windows. 1 As far as the composition is 
concerned, the Italian artists copied, more 
or less, Byzantine originals. In our case it is 
the Hodegetria type. An example, closely 
related to our painting, is in S. Maria del 
Popolo in Rome, the highly venerated 
Madonna (see illustration) said to be 
painted by Saint Luke, which was exported 
from Constantinople and given to the 
church by the Pope in 1235. 2 

In our Madonna (see cover illustration) 
the local colors are not quite so strong as 
in the large crucifix in Lucca, but they are 
clearly enough defined in separate areas, 
the dark blue mantle of the Madonna, the 
orange-brown of the child, both beautifully 
contrasted with the golden background 
and the golden hatchings which mark the 
folds of the mantle. The touches of light 
blue in the belt of the Child and of cinnabar 
on the veil of the Virgin relieve the other- 
wise sombre color scheme which corre- 
sponds to the serious and sad expression 
of the Madonna. 

Italian art like its poetry began to develop 
its national characteristics in the thirteenth 
century under great difficulties in the midst 
of wars and a chaotic social life. The 
influence of Romanesque art in sculpture 
coming from the North, and of Byzantine 
art in painting coming from the East, was 
still overpowering. The Italian artists had to 
build up their own new conception upon 
a highly developed tradition coming from 
other countries. The art of sculpture in 
Tuscany, and especially in Lucca, is purely 
Romanesque, while the early painting is a 
combination of Romanesque art with 
Byzantine formulas. That Berlinghiero came 
from Milan speaks for his being well 
acquainted with the remarkable Roman- 
esque art of Lombardy. 

Although the subject and composition 
of our Madonna is derived from the Byzan- 
tine Hodegetria type, a careful study 
proves that line and color and the more 
human expression in the faces of Madonna 
and Child speak the new Italian language. 
The Child, with His more elongated pro- 
portions, is more lively in His movement, 
while the Madonna expresses sadness in 
the narrow eyes and the drooping lips. 
As far as the clear-cut planes of the model- 
ling in an abstract style are concerned, it 
is, as an excellent student (R. Oertel) 
remarked in connection with similar com- 
positions, as if a modern cubist painter had 
copied a Byzantine Madonna and overlaid 
it with his own abstract scheme. 

The painting is rounded at the top. The 
spandrels were originally filled with angels, 
of which the one on the right is still fairly 
well preserved. It formed the center part 
of a triptych of the type of the two slightly 
later tabernacles of the Lucchese school 
still preserved, one in the Stocklet Col- 
lection in Brussels showing the Virgin in 
half length with the Child sitting on the 
Virgin's right arm, the other representing 
the Madonna enthroned in full length in 
the Frick Library in New York (ca. 1270). 
Both these triptychs have scenes from the 
Passion of Christ in two tiers on the wings, 
to which has been added on the outside 
in the Frick triptych the figure of St. 
Francis, showing the connection with the 
Franciscan order. 3 

The only Madonna in America some- 

3 The fact that our painting originally formed a 
triptych like the two triptychs mentioned above and 
several others, for instance, the Tabernacle of a Floren- 
tine master, Yale Collection No. 4 (Offner, ca. 1270), 
raises doubts as to whether our painting is actually as 
early as 1235-40. If so, it would be the earliest triptych 
known of this type. 

what similar in type to ours is the panel 
in the collection of Mrs. J. I. Straus in 
New York (reproduced as No. 3 in the 
catalogue of the Mostra Giottesca, 1937, 
and in Garrison's Italian Romanesque Panel 
Painting, No. 96), which has been given 
either to Bcrlinghiero or to his son Bona- 
ventura, who in 1243 executed a Madonna 
painting for an archdeacon at Lucca. The 
present painting (28 % by 19 ^ i inches) 
comes from an English collection (K. Dug- 
gan, Stanford De Hope, Essex) and was 
published in The Connoisseur (May 1953, 
page 134) when in the possession of Piero 
Tozzi, New York, from whom it has been 
acquired. It was completely overpainted 
in the sixteenth century; after these later 
layers were carefully removed, it turned 
out to be in fairly good condition. 

Appreciation of Tuscan panel paintings 
before the epoch of Duccio and Cimabue 
at the end of the thirteenth century is of 
very recent date and is undoubtedly due 
to their relationship to modern art. For 
this reason we believe that the acquisition 
of this painting will be of special interest 
to artists and to those who are interested 
in the art movements of our time. 


Oswald Siren, Toskanische Maler im XIII. 
Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1922; R. van Marie, 
The Development of the Italian Schools of 
Painting, I, 1923; E. Lavagnino, Santa 
Maria Del Popolo, Rome, 1925, p. 40; 
Richard Offner, Italian Primitives at Tale, 
New Haven, 1927; Edward B. Garrison, 
Italian Romanesque Panel Painting, Florence, 
1949; R. Oertel, Die Friihzeit der italienischen 
Maler ei, 1953. 


Constantin Netscher (Dutch, 1668-1723), Rachel Ruysch in Her Studio. Canvas, 45 x 36 inches. 
Gift of Armand and Victor Hammer, New York. 



By W. R. Valentiner 

The Museum owns one of the rare 
flowerpieces by Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750) 
(see illustration) who has always had the 
reputation of being the most outstanding 
flower painter of the last period of Dutch 
seventeenth century art. It is, therefore, of 
special interest that an excellent portrait 
of this famous woman painter (see illustra- 
tion) could be added to the Museum's 
collection, thanks to the generous gift of 
the Hammer brothers, Armand and Victor, 
of New York. 

In this painting we see on an easel 
standing next to Rachel Ruysch another 
of her flowerpieces which should be com- 
pared with the one owned by the Museum. 
The composition is very similar: upon a 
marble table stands a vase containing, in 
a diagonal arrangement, a few stems of 
large open blossoms, the most prominent 
being roses and carnations. These big 
blossoms, while softly modelled and tinted, 
are strongly lighted against a black back- 
ground and come forward almost in front 
of the plane of the spectator, in accordance 
with the baroque tendency toward the use 
of high relief in the most essential sections 
of the composition. In the concentration 
upon a few large, plastically raised blossoms, 
unfolded obliquely toward the upper corner 
and thus breaking up every symmetry, we 
observe the characteristics of the late 
baroque style in Holland which leads to 
the completely open, fluttering rhythms of 
the eighteenth century Rococo flower 
paintings as represented in our collection 

by Francois Desportes' flowerpiece entitled 
"An Urn of Flowers With A Rabbit." 

Flower painting passed through several 
stages in the Netherlands before it reached 
the period of Rachel Ruysch, and, as we 
have nowadays discarded the idea of 
progress, it would be a mistake to call her 
conception the height of this art, although 
she undoubtedly represents her epoch at 
its best. The students and collectors of 
this branch of art are at present more 
interested in the earliest stages of the 
development, which has the charm of all 
primitive art. The first stage is the period 
around 1600 when flower painting started 
in Flanders with such masters as Jan 
Bruegel the Younger and Roelant Savery, 
whose paintings show a rich conglomera- 
tion of hundreds of small flowers combined 
with somewhat larger ones to form a 
pyramid-like composition in a rather flat, 
linear style with masses of local colors. 
Next follow the Dutch masters and followers 
of Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder, and 
Jacob de Gheyn, who — belonging to the 
early baroque period — prefer an open 
arrangement of a few individual flowers 
clearly outlined and strongly colored, fre- 
quently placed against a light background. 

While we believe that French art in the 
eighteenth century was influenced in the 
special field of flower painting by painters 
of the Low Countries, particularly by 
Rachel Ruysch, whose fame had spread to 
the neighboring countries, it is obvious 
that in the type of allegorical genre paint- 
ings which we see in her portrait the 


Rachel Ruysch (Dutch, 1664-1750). A Vase of Flowers. Canvas, 2\% x 18 inches. From the Mu- 
seum's Purchase Collection. 


French influence upon Dutch art is pre- 

The painting is a glorification of the 
artist, composed in the elaborate allegorical 
style of the court painters in France at the 
time of Louis XIV. A cupid flies above the 
head of the artist holding a wreath with 
which to crown her, while the winged 
figure of Fame ascends toward heaven, 
calling the artist's name with the trumpet 
she is blowing. 

The painting has been attributed to 
Constantin Netscher (1668-1723), the son 
of Caspar Netscher (1639-1684), who was 
a pupil of Ter Borch. Both Caspar and 
Constantin Netscher were painters of the 
Dutch aristocracy who, especially at the 
end of the great period of Dutch painting, 
liked to be represented in allegorical or 
mythological costumes. Most likely, our 
portrait has an additional allegorical mean- 
ing of wider scope. Not only is the art of 
painting represented in its different fields 
of portraiture, landscape, genre, and still 
life, but also the art of sculpture in free 
plastic works and reliefs, and the art of 
music as expressed by the instrument on 
the table and the violin player on the 
balcony. The art of poetry is suggested by 
the romantic oriental figure walking in the 
park, accompanied by a Negro holding an 
umbrella over him, and the art of the 
dance is represented by the marble relief 
under the balustrade, which shows dancing 
children after a composition of Duquesnoy. 
The goddess protectress of the arts can 
be seen in the center background in the 
statue of Minerva. 

That the combination of portraits with 
an allegory of more general meaning was 
in fashion at this period we can see from 

the allegory of painting by the famous 
contemporary of our artist, Adriaen van 
der WerfT, in the Darmstadt Museum, 
which is at the same time a portrait of the 
wife of the Elector-Palatine of the Rhine, 
whom Rachel Ruysch and Van der WerfT 
served as court painters. The prince pre- 
sented Rachel Ruysch with the medal 
which in our portrait she wears around her 
neck on a blue ribbon. He also paid her a 
considerable salary, in exchange for which 
she had to deliver most of her paintings to 
him; with a few exceptions which he gave 
to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, he kept 
them in his famous collection. 

In the foreground of our painting, we 
observe on the left side a finely painted 
still life of grapes and peaches, and on the 
right side a basket with roses, tulips, and 
other flowers, so similar in composition 
and technique to the style of Rachel 
Ruysch that it seems quite possible that 
our artist has added to her portrait these 
still lifes, which seem like an afterthought 
to the composition. 

If earthly possessions mean the height 
of happiness, Rachel Ruysch was blessed 
beyond belief. She became so well known 
that the prices paid for her paintings 
surpassed by far those which Rembrandt 
received at his best period (she received 
between 750 and 1200 guilders, while 
Rembrandt rarely received more than 500 
guilders). In 1708, she became court 
painter to the Elector-Palatine and stayed 
for eight years in Diisseldorf. She had a 
considerable income from this position. In 
other ways she was also fortunate; she was 
married at an early age to an understanding 
husband, Jurriaen Pool, who was himself 


a painter, and they had ten children. And 
last but not least, after all these happy 
circumstances, she and her husband in 
1723 won the grand prize in a lottery 
amounting to 60,000 guilders, which would 

be about $100,000 in American dollars. 
She lived to be eighty, and we learn from 
her biographer, Van Gool, that she did 
some excellent paintings, even to the end 
of her life. 



by May Davis Hill 

1. Frans Pourbus the Elder (?), GOD 

2. Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, 

3. Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, THE 

4. Bartolome Esteban Murillo, ESAU 

5. Pedro Orrente, JACOB CONJUR- 

6. Luca Giordano, THE FINDING OF 

7. Jan Steen, THE WORSHIP OF 

8. Peter Paul Rubens, GIDEON OVER- 

9. Ferdinand Bol, THE SACRIFICE 

10. Rembrandt van Rijn, ESTHER'S 

Until the eighteenth century religious 
subjects constituted the majority of storied 
paintings in European art. Before the 
Reformation paintings of the Madonna, 
the life of Christ, and scenes from the 
lives of saints were most numerous; since 
the Reformation the practice in Catholic 
and Protestant countries has varied some- 
what, inasmuch as the Protestant painters 
rarely present the lives of the Madonna 
and of saints. In both parts of Europe, 
however, stories from the Old Testament 
became popular. 

The examples in our collection are 
about evenly divided between Protestant 
and Catholic countries, and all belong to 
the period from about 1600 to 1700. We 

shall give here a short resume of the ten 
paintings belonging to this class, since the 
subjects are less known than those of the 
New Testament. Although the Bible is the 
most widely read book, one wonders 
whether many of the Museum's visitors 
could tell offhand what, for instance, is 
represented in the painting by Orrente, 
"Jacob Conjuring Laban's Sheep" or in 
the sketch by Rubens representing "Gideon 
Overcoming the Midianites." 


1. The Museum has in its collection a 
charming and popular painting of "God 
Creating the Animals," which is the work 
of a Flemish master of about 1570, possibly 
Frans Pourbus the Elder, who, according to 

Frans Pourbus the Elder? (Flemish, 1545-81), 
God Creating the Animals. Panel, 51x47^. 


Van Mander, was one of the first to paint 
animals from life. In medieval fashion, 
many episodes from the creation story 
(Genesis 1) are represented in the same 
composition: the division of light and dark, 
and the creation of the sun, moon and stars; 
the creation of the sea and the sea creatures, 
with the whales quite prominent, as in the 
Bible text; the creation of the land animals, 
the best designed among them being those 
best known to the Northern artist, like the 
horse, cattle, deer, and fowl, while the 
animals from foreign countries, the ele- 
phants, lions, rhinoceroses, camels, mon- 
keys, and especially those produced by a 
fantastic medieval imagination — unicorns, 
monsters, dragons — appear less convincing. 

While the landscape is, in design and 
color, developed toward the depth in the 
Renaissance fashion, the whole composition 
still has the frontal relief style of the 
earlier period. 

In smaller proportions in the distance 
one can recognize the scenes of the creation 
of man and woman, and Adam and Eve 
driven from Paradise. 

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (Italian, 1610- 
1665), Noah and the Animals. Canvas, 5Q}4 x 69 

2. With the next story, we are only 
fifty years advanced, and yet an entirely 
new conception can be observed in the 
painting by Benedetto Castiglione (1610- 
1665), the Genoese painter of the baroque 
period. The interest in the animal world 
was shared by the late Renaissance painters 
of North Italy (Genoa and Venice) and the 
North European artists, and it was probably 
for this reason that Castiglione chose the 
subject of Noah's ark (Genesis 7) where 
he could show his knowledge of animals. 
Yet, how much truer to nature he appears, 
corresponding to the realism of the Renais- 
sance, than the early Flemish master. The 
pairs of animals, like the deer in the right 
corner, the monkeys in the left, the cattle 
and donkeys, the turkey and other fowl, 
could not have been more lifelike if painted 
in the nineteenth century; at the same time 
the artist developed the forms toward the 
depth and with plastic values with an excel- 
lent knowledge of Renaissance principles. 

3. Following Biblical chronology, we 
come to the story of Abraham and Hagar 

Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (Dutch, 1621- 
1674), Expulsion of Hagar. Canvas, 213^ x 27 


Bartolome Esteban Murillo (Spanish, 1618- 
1682), Esau Selling His Birthright. Canvas, 33^ 
x 41 inches. 

(Genesis 21). It is one of the favorite 
stories of the seventeenth century, in Italy 
as well as in Holland, where Rembrandt 
showed so much interest in it that no less 
than one hundred paintings and drawings 
of this subject have been counted among 
his and his pupils' work. 1 Our painting is 
by a close pupil and friend of Rembrandt, 
Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (1621-1674), 
who took over most of the elements of 
Rembrandt's own conception. The setting 
is very similar to many of those painted by 
Rembrandt for similar scenes from the Old 
Testament. The weeping Hagar is seen in 
the center with the unfortunate boy whose 
mockery had aroused the ire of Sarah 
and caused them to be sent away into the 
desert. Abraham spreads his palms apart in 
a gesture of futility, while the servants go 
about their tasks in the near-by court. 

4. Next in the Biblical sequence comes 
the charming representation by Murillo 

'See Richard Hamann, "Hagars Abschied bei 
Rembrandt und im Rembrandt-Kreis," Marburger 
Jahrbuch fur Kunstwissenschqft, XIII-IX, 16. 

(1618-1682) of "Esau Selling His Birth- 
right" (Genesis 25). In the foreground the 
two brothers are painted in the style most 
typical of Murillo's work, looking much 
like the boys from the marketplace so 
often used as models by this artist. The 
guileless Esau on the left has the bowl of 
pottage for which he gave his birthright. 
With his right hand upraised he swears 
the oath required by Jacob. Leaning toward 
him, Jacob, with his back to the spectator 
and his right index finger raised, demands 
the oath of his brother. The shallow space 
is deepened in one corner (at the upper 
right) to show a room where the dying 
Isaac is giving his blessing to Jacob, who, 
urged on by his mother Rebecca, kneels 
as he deceives his father into giving him 
his brother's blessing. He gives his father 
his hands, which Rebecca has covered 
with the skins of animals to make them 
resemble those of Esau. 

5. Jacob appears again in the next 
episode with another exhibition of his 
ability to drive a hard bargain. In "Jacob 
Conjuring , Taban's Sheep," by Pedro 

Pedro Orrente (Spanish, ca. 1570-1644), Jacob 
Conjuring Lab an' s Sheep. Canvas, 39 x 52 inches. 


Orrente (about 1570-1644), we find him 
busy placing spotted and streaked rods 
before the sheep at the watering trough. 
Laban had promised Jacob all the spotted 
and speckled sheep as his wages (Genesis 
30), and Jacob cunningly placed the 
bewitching rods before the strongest of 
the flock in order that they might bring- 
forth speckled young. The weak cattle he 
left for Laban. In this way the strongest 
and the majority of the cattle went to the 
nephew who had sought shelter with 
Laban, served him for twenty years, and 
married his two daughters. 

Orrente shows the scene in a brooding- 
sunset with exaggerated highlights and 
shadows reminiscent of the chiaroscuro of 
Caravaggio, with a pupil of whom he is 
believed to have studied. Jacob has the 
appearance of a Spanish shepherd tending 
his flock, just as in the Murillo painting he 
resembled a Spanish boy from the market- 


The first five scenes, or half the entire 
number of incidents from the Old Teata- 
ment represented in the Museum have come 
from the eventful Book of Genesis. Now 
come two stories from Exodus: "The 
Finding of Moses" (Exodus 2) by Luca 
Giordano and Jan Steen's "Worship of 
the Golden Calf" (Exodus 32). 

6. Luca Giordano (1632-1705), a Nea- 
politan, grew up in the workshop of his 
father, who was also a painter. Demands 
for paintings came into this shop so fast 
that the son was given the nickname 
"Fa Presto" — from having been urged to 
"do it fast." As a result of this pressure he 
produced a large oeuvre. In "The Finding 
of Moses" Pharaoh's daughter is a diademed 

Luca Giordano (Italian, 1632-1705), The 

Finding of Moses. Canvas 60 x 82 inches. 

princess gracefully expressing wonder as 
her attendants draw the baby toward the 
shore of the Nile. In the background on 
the left stands the shadowed figure of the 
sister Miriam, with hand upraised, waiting 
for the opportunity to fetch a nurse, who 
will be the baby's mother. The landscape 
recedes in the background toward a brightly 
contrasting skyline. 

7. Jan Steen (1626-1679) was principally 
a painter of genre, but the Museum is 
fortunate in having one of his rare religious 
paintings. It is the "Worship of the Golden 
Calf," painted about 1670. In the fore- 
ground the artist is thought to have painted 
himself and his family among the revellers, 
feasting or playing musical instruments 
(Steen himself strikes a triangle). The 
metal vessels, melons, and the rich rug 
reflect the genre for which he is famous. 
Removed from the foreground group are 
the column on which the calf is mounted 
and a lively group of dancers who encircle 
it. Aaron stands nearby swinging a censer. 
The right background shows a steeply 
ascending mountain from which Moses 
must surely soon return, while on the left 


Jan Steen (Dutch, 1626-1679), Worship of the 
Golden Calf. Canvas 70 x 61 inches. 

the landscape gives way in the distance to 
a low skyline. 


The first two books of the Bible, Genesis 
and Exodus, have furnished us with seven 
of the ten Old Testament subjects which 
are represented in the collection. The next 
two subjects come, however, from an 
equally eventful epoch in Biblical history, 
the era of the Judges. 

8. The first episode is inscribed 
"JUDICVM CAP VII" or Judges, Chapter 
7, and this clearly identifies the subject of 
our Rubens sketch as "Gideon Overcoming 

2 The method of choosing the three hundred men in 
the Biblical account was as follows: God had told Gideon 
that the victory would seem too easy if his entire host 
participated — Israel would say, "Mine own hand hath 
saved me." Therefore, the fearful and afraid were 
first told to withdraw. This left ten thousand of the 
twenty-two thousand, and these were told to drink at 
the brook. Those who wasted no time bowing down on 
their knees but lapped the water like dogs constituted 
the three hundred chosen to defeat the Midianites. 

the Midianites." A scene of turmoil, it 
shows a tangle of men and horses with the 
tents of Midian's frightened army on the 
left, the victorious army of Gideon on the 
right. The soldiers blow their trumpets, 
and one still holds the empty pitcher in 
which his lamp had been concealed until 
the moment of attack. These circumstances 
bear out the sixteenth verse of Chapter 7: 

And he divided the three hundred men 2 into 
three companies, and he put a trumpet in 
every man's hand, with empty pitchers, and 
lamps within the pitchers. 

At the moment of attack the trumpets 
were to be blown and the pitchers broken 
to reveal the lamps inside, thus frightening 
the enemy. In the sky is the destructive 
"cake of barley bread" which had appeared 
to one of the Midianites in a dream, and 
which had been interpreted as the sword 
of Gideon which would descend to destroy 
the army of Midian. 

The painting illustrates the fullness with 
which Rubens planned a composition in 

Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577-1640), 
Gideon Overcoming the Midianites. Panel, 233 / 2 x 
28^ inches. 


Ferdinand Bol (Dutch, 1616-1680), The Sacrifice 
of Manoah. Panel, 28 x 21^2 inches. Gift of 
Mr. Robert Badenhop, Newark, New Jersey. 

the early stages. Though a sketch, it is 
thoroughly visualized and carried out in 
every detail. Possibly it was used as a 
cartoon for a tapestry. Similar figures of 
horsemen have been used in other compo- 
sitions of Rubens, principally "The Defeat 
of Sennacherib" in Munich. 

9. The second episode from the Book of 
Judges is "The Sacrifice of Manoah" by 
Ferdinand Bol, a pupil of Rembrandt. It 
is the gift of Mr. Robert Badenhop of 
Newark, New Jersey, having first appeared 
in the Museum as a loan for the exhibition 
"Rembrandt and His Pupils" in November, 
1956. The style of Rembrandt's middle 
years (about 1640-50) is apparent in the 
devout figures and in the background of 

houses and trees above the wall, on which 
a peacock is sitting. 

The story tells of the announcement to 
Manoah and his (unnamed) wife of the 
forthcoming birth of their son, Samson. 
The wife first learned of this fact from an 
angel, but Manoah refused to believe the 
news until the angel, whom neither recog- 
nized as divine, reappeared and repeated 
his message. Manoah then made a sacrifice 
to God and the angel ascended in the 
flame, thus revealing his identity. In our 
painting the awe-struck man and wife 
stand frozen as the angel rises above the 
fire they have built. A kid lies ready for 
the sacrifice at right, while two onlookers 
appear at the left. Two opposing sets of 
diagonals form a dynamic composition 
which is heightened by a strong light 
coming from the left. 


10. The last of our group of representa- 
tions from the Old Testament in the 

Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606-1669), 
Esther's Feast. Canvas, 53 x 65 inches. 


Museum's collection is from the Book of 
Esther (Chapter 7). It is Rembrandt's 
"Esther's Feast." The Museum is par- 
ticularly fortunate in having the work, 
painted about 1626, which is probably 
Rembrandt's first large painting. It shows 
the interest in rich textures and the style 
which Rembrandt inherited from his 
teacher Pieter Lastman, combined with the 
influence of the Utrecht followers of Cara- 
vaggio. The figure silhouetted against the 
hidden light source indicates an early 
interest in effects of this type. 

The painting represents the moment 
when Esther, whose people are about to 
be destroyed by Haman, reveals the 
treachery of the prime minister to her 
husband, Ahasueras. She has created an 
opportunity for her disclosure by preparing 
a banquet, to which she has invited the 
king and his minister. Esther points to 
Haman, who recoils at the revelation, 
while Ahasueras clinches his fists in anger. 
In the background Rembrandt has placed 
the chamberlain Hatach. 

This painting has been described in a 
contemporary poem by Jan Vos which was 

thought for many years to refer to the small 
full-length version of the subject in Moscow, 
but which, as has been pointed out, was in 
reality written of our own version. It refers 
to the clinched fists of Ahasueras and to 
the bread on the table, neither of which 
appears in the Moscow painting. The 
poem, as translated by Tancred Borenius 
in the Phaidon Rembrandt (1942), page 26, 

Here one sees Haman eating with 

Ahasuerus and Esther, 
But it is in vain, his breast is full of grief 

and pain. 

He bites at Esther's food: but deeper 

into her heart. 
The King is possessed by revenge 

and rage, 

The wrath of a king is shocking as it 

Threatening all men, it is nullified by 
a woman. 

So falls one from the summit into the 

chasm of adversity. 
The vengeance which comes slow has 

the strongest rods. 



by James B. Byrnes 

In the first half of 1957, the Museum 
presented three major exhibitions featuring 
contemporary painting and sculpture as- 
sembled and arranged to present specific 
aspects of present day art. 

The first exhibition, titled "Panel's 
Choice," included the work of younger 
artists of the past decade who were chosen 
by a group of three people active in the 
production and criticism of present day art. 

The second featured inexpensive, original 
watercolors, drawings, prints, and litho- 
graphs, together with small sculptures by 
19th and 20th century artists which were 
available for purchase after a trial rental 
period. Presented as an "Art Rental 
Gallery," the project will continue through- 
out the year. 

The third exhibition consisted of a 
selection of some forty-five paintings and 
sculptures on loan from a private collector 
residing in Raleigh. This exhibition in- 
cluded work by American and European 
modern artists of the past sixty years with 
particular emphasis on work by the leading 

"Panel's Choice," shown April 2 through 
April 24, was by far the most difficult for 
any but the artist, critic and student. The 
show was put together by a committee, 
representing the Woman's College in 
Greensboro and the Museum, who selected 
the individual works from a list of younger 
artists recommended by critic Thomas Hess 
of Art News, Grace Hartigan, painter, and 
Ibram Lassaw, sculptor, all of New York 

City. These three experts comprised an 
invited panel who discussed current Ameri- 
can painting at Woman's College where 
the exhibition was shown before its viewing 
here in Raleigh. The general character of 
the exhibition was a mixture of examples 
by the earlier so-called "non-objective" 
artists — Motherwell, Hofmann, Kline, 
Lassaw and Hare; and the younger "return 
toward the object" work of artists Larry 
Rivers, Grace Hartigan, Felix Pasilis, 
Robert Goodnough, Robert de Niro, Mary 
Abbott, Elaine de Kooning and others. 
Standing midway were the works of artists 
Joan Mitchell, Milton Resnick, Giorgio 
Cavallon and Helen Frankenthaler; all of 
whom depend from the "abstract expres- 
sionist" aesthetic and from whom, together 
with those of the older generations, one 
frequently found more finished canvases. 
This is perhaps natural in view of their 
continuation of the non-objective idiom 
which has dominated American painting 
for the past fifteen years. The group of 
painters who offered more figurative works, 
with the suggestion or depiction of the 
figure and other objects, strangely were 
regarded as the more controversial exhibi- 
tors. Many were students of Hans Hofmann 
and display his emphasis on strong color 
and "push-pull" line. If one talks with an 
artist of this younger group, he finds him 
struggling against the established genera- 
tion. He criticizes the older group as having 
started out toward painting with an abso- 
lute "at ease honesty," who has somewhere 


along the line become a sophisticate, a 
natural-shoulder artist, and the young rebel 
wants to banish affectation, polish and 
posing, and while some may regard his 
approach as "neo-Hobohemianism," he 
patently rejects Russell Lynes' "Upper 
Bohemia." His is not an easy row to hoe; 
he is rejected by both the traditionalist 
and abstract painter; in grappling with 
subject matter, he places a special burden 
on his most critical audience who, having" 
come to terms with significant non-figura- 
tive work, finds that the slightest hint of a 
representational image intrudes upon the 
purity of his enjoyment. Nevertheless, this 
new group of quasi-representational paint- 
ers has a widening audience and a core of 
critics who champion its efforts. This new 
group is by no means a "sanity in art" 
movement; they are not "returning to" 
the image in any academic sense; they 
simply do not strive to submerge it, but 
instead encourage its emergence. 

One of the best artists of this persuasion 
was unfortunately not included among the 
Panel's recommendations; his work not 
being too familiar to the New York area, 
at present. Enrique Montenegro, currently 
teaching at the School of Design here in 
Raleigh, is a well-known painter in the 
Far West, where he taught at the University 
of New Mexico and the Denver Museum, 
and was given a number of one-man shows. 
Montenegro was identified as a "non- 
objective" painter for more than ten years 
until recently when he began a series of 
canvases involving deep spaced interiors 
with figures. His most recent work pro- 
duced here in Raleigh is a series of richly 
painted figure pieces in which the subject 
and objects are more clearly defined than 

before, but the figurative elements are never 
carried beyond the point of expressing 
their role in the larger space relationship 
which is the artist's total concern. 

Montenegro's work is being featured in 
an exhibition at the Museum at present, 
shortly before he leaves to take a new 
position at the University of Texas. 

The second exhibition, the "Art Rental 
Gallery," was presented from May 3 to 
May 15. The purpose of arranging this 
event was to bring together original works 
of art available for purchase at prices 
attractive to developing young collectors. 
The title "Art Rental Gallery" was chosen 
because such activity has become part of 
the more familiar offering in many art 
museums in the country. However, the 
"Rental" aspect was somewhat de-empha- 
sized in the Museum's exhibition; instead, 
the idea of rental was to provide a trial 
basis for those not entirely certain of their 
choice. In selecting the material, original 
works by nineteenth and twentieth century 
masters were featured; in most cases these 
were lithographs, etchings and posters by 
such artists as Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, 
Rouault, Matisse, Braque, and artists of 
more popular appeal — Dufy, Laurencin, 
Dali and others. The younger generation of 
European artists — Marini, Hartung, Music, 
Clave, Esteve, Campigli, Matta, etc., pro- 
vided interesting signed examples of work 
which sold for under fifty dollars. Young 
American artists were asked to supply water- 
colors and drawings with prices rarely ex- 
ceeding $175.00 for a top artist. Typical 
comments ran — "This is the first time I have 
had a chance to learn how inexpensive one 
can get original items by well-known artists" ; 
"I've paid more for a framed reproduction" 


Odilon Redon (French, 1840-1916), Dante and Beatrice. Oil on canvas, 19j^ x 25^ inches. Exhib- 
ited, "A Private Collection of Modern Art." Anonymous lender, Raleigh. 

and "It's nice to see the Museum providing 
a service usually reserved for plush private 
galleries that the public would hesitate to 
enter." From the exhibition, five works 
were sold immediately and nine were 
rented. The project was created as a self- 
amortizing activity since no budget funds 
were available, and we are happy to report 
that a small profit accrued which will 
permit the Museum to put on another 
showing in the fall. 

The third exhibition provided an inter- 
esting contrast to the preceeding two since 

it consisted of works of art acquired by a 
private collector over a period of forty years. 

The earliest works in the exhibition were 
two fine canvases by the poet-symboiist 
painter, Odilon Redon, one of which, 
"Dante and Beatrice" (see illustration) 
ranks as one of this artist's foremost oil 
paintings. Following chronologically were 
two outstanding watercolors by Paul Klee 
and of the same period, an almost cubist- 
abstract "Female Figure" by Marcel Gro- 
maire, among the artist's most important 
efforts. From there the range covers artists 


of many persuasions — from two gouaches 
by the mystically-romantic master Morris 
Graves through to the latest works by 
local artists Duncan Stuart, Enrique Mon- 
tenegro and George Bireline. Among the 
sculpture was an early masterful work, "The 
Wrestler," by Marino Marini (see illustra- 
tion), dated 1935 — the first work by Marini 
to be acquired in this country. Small 
bronzes by Haller, Georg Kolbe and Henry 
Moore and a delightful welded construction 
by Harry Bertoia demonstrate the range of 

Marino Marini (Italian Contemporary), The 
Fighter, 1935. Bronze, height 26^2 inches. Ex- 
hibited, "A Private Collection of Modern Art." 
Anonymous lender, Raleigh. 

sculpture approach from the representa- 
tional through to the completely abstract. 

The showing of a personally selected 
private collection always provides a very 
interesting exhibition. However, it is rare 
to find such a collection outside the large 
metropolitan centers and indeed rarer to 
see one which demonstrates such a knowl- 
edgeable understanding of the significant 
artists in one's own lifetime. It is no trick 
to buy such artists as Klee, Miro, Gromaire 
and the later day comers to prominence — 
the German expressionists, Kirchner, 
Schmidt-Rottluff, Kokoschka, and Nolde, 
but to have acquired them when they were 
relatively unknown and certainly not mar- 
ketable, testifies to an active participating 
interest in the creative structure of our 
time. To be able to present such an exhi- 
bition so early in this Museum's history 
points up our own obligation to exhibit and 
acquire the work of significant present day 
artists and not to wait until they have 
passed on in life and into history and of 
course into the higher priced plane of the 
art market. 

To follow out the program mentioned 
above, the three exhibitions held brought 
to the attention of the public the work of 
leading artists of our time. In addition, 
the Museum was fortunate in obtaining a 
few paintings by artists shown in them 
through the generosity of private individu- 
als. The Museum expresses sincere thanks 
to Mr. James I. Merrill of New York City, 
who presented "Interior with Mexican 
Doll" by Grace Hartigan, "Palm Frond" 
by Felix Pasilis, and "Seated Figure" by 
Robert Goodnough; all artists whose works 
were shown in the "Panel's Choice" 
exhibition. From the selections made for 
the Art Rental Gallery, the Museum was 


pleased to receive "Some People at the 
Beach" by Robert Andrew Parker as a 
gift from Mrs. Barbara Wescott of Clinton, 
New Jersey. This writer would like per- 
sonally to thank the artists and donors 
who helped make these exhibitions and 
gifts possible. 

Another gift by a living artist was pre- 
sented by the Erwin-Lambeth Furniture 
Company of Thomasville, N C. — four 

wall panels painted by Richards Ruben of 
Los Angeles for a contemporary room 
interior designed by Erwin-Lambeth. The 
panels were shown in the Chicago Art 
Mart, at the Pasadena Museum of Art, and 
the San Francisco Museum of Art. 

It is hoped that other works by today's 
artists will be acquired for the projected 
gallery of contemporary art which will 
open some time this fall. 



A new series of galleries was opened in 
the Museum on Sunday, July 21 , containing 
early sculpture and decorative arts. Thus 
far, the Museum collection consisted almost 
exclusively of paintings representing the 
periods from the fifteenth century to our 
own epoch. As an educational institution 
destined to teach the complete art history 
of the world, the Museum should also 
necessarily contain objects illustrating the 
earliest epochs, from prehistoric times until 
the fifteenth century, epochs in which the 
art of painting was less prominent than 
that of sculpture and decorative arts. 

It will take some time before it will be 
possible to represent the art of the countries 
where art was first created, that is, Meso- 
potamia, China, and Egypt, from the fourth 
and third millennium before Christ. But 
thanks to the generous help of Dr. and 
Mrs. Fred Olsen a beginning could be made 
with a small collection of Egyptian and 
Greek art. 

The earliest piece is a fragmentary relief 
of exquisite design of the Tell 'Amarna 
period (1377-1358 B.C.) slightly colored 
in the faces and representing as the main 
motif a girl playing a harp. A series of 
canopic jars and a few small granite and 
bronze figures as well as a painted mummy 
cloth belong to the Saite period (600-300 
B.C.); a realistic portrait head of a woman 
with dark eyes made of shell comes from 
the Roman period in Egypt. Outstanding 
is the collection of about twenty-one pieces 
of textiles and stone fragments of the Copts. 
These Christians living in Egypt developed 
with a high degree of technical skill the 

earliest known tapestry weavings with 
designs based partly upon Roman and 
partly upon Oriental motifs belonging 
mostly to the fifth and sixth centuries A.D. 
This beginning of a textile collection is of 
special importance for North Carolina 
with its highly developed textile industry. 

While these objects are displayed in the 
corridor of the third floor, the first of the 
small galleries on this floor is devoted to 
Greek and Roman art from the sixth and 
fifth centuries B.C. to the third century 

A. D. Only one large marble statue repre- 
senting Hercules, in a dramatic pose, 
obviously a Roman copy after a Hellenistic 
original, represents the highest art of the 
classical period. The sculpture in marble 
is a gift of Mr. and Mrs. Jack Linsky of 
New York. The art of vase painting can 
be traced from the earliest types with simple 
geometric design to the archaic forms of 
the Corinthian style of the sixth century 

B. C. showing friezes with Oriental animals, 
from the black-figured types of the fifth 
century to the red-figured ones of the fourth 
and third centuries B.C. This development 
is paralleled by that of the clay figurines 
of which we can show a collection of about 
seventeen pieces, mostly of the fifth and 
fourth centuries B.C., especially impressive 
being the early abstract forms of goddesses 
and Kore, and the enchanting Tanagra 
figurines of the fourth century and later. 

The next gallery contains the excellent 
collection of ancient glass of Egyptian, 
Roman, and Syrian workmanship, from 
the third century B.C. to the third century 
A.D., given to the Museum by the late 


Mrs. Katherine Pendleton Arrington, presi- 
dent for many years of the North Carolina 
State Art Society. In this gallery are also 
exhibited four Gandhara reliefs presented 
by Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen representing 
the same motif of Buddha and his disciples 
in different variations. This art of the 
first and second centuries A.D. is thought 
to have its origin in the Hellenistic period 
of the time when Alexander the Great 
conquered India. 

The third gallery is devoted to medieval 
art and contains thus far only a small 
number of sculptures and one painting as 
a centerpiece, one of the few earliest 
examples of Italian painting in America, 
a work by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri of 
Lucca (see article, page 1). There are 
also three pieces representing the great 
art of French Gothic sculpture, one a 
capital of the fourteenth century with the 
fantastic forms of a bearded man, a woman, 
and a lion's head between Gothic leaves 
in high relief. The two other pieces belong- 
ing to the early and the late fifteenth 
century represent Saint Mary Magdalene 
in two very different conceptions. One 
shows the Magdalene as the mourning 
Mary at Christ's tomb holding the vase of 
ointment, while the other represents the 
saint praying and covered from head to 
foot with her hair which grew in one night 
as a protection when she was praying in 
the desert. Italian Gothic art is represented 
with only one marble relief from Naples 
representing Saint Catherine executed by 
a follower of Tino da Camaino and showing 
the influence of French sculpture of the 
Anjou period in Italy, a gift of Dr. and 
Mrs. W. Lunsford Long, Jr., of Raleigh. 

The last gallery is devoted to one of 

the greatest epochs of sculpture, that of 
the Italian Renaissance and Baroque, 
fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Not 
more than ten sculptures are exhibited to 
give an idea of this productive epoch. To 
the fifteenth century belongs the relief of the 
Madonna by Donatello from the Werner 
Weisbach collection in painted stucco, 
a composition otherwise not known, char- 
acteristic in the tragic mood of the Virgin 
contrasted with the playful attitude of the 
Child, executed in the clear-cut, flat relief 
style of his late period (reproduced in 
Bulletin No. 1). A charming marble relief 
of the Madonna from the Preston P. 
Satterwhite collection in New York has 
always been known under the name of 
Antonio Federighi, the most outstanding 
follower of Donatello in Siena. The third 
relief of the early Renaissance is a portrait 
of Duke Federigo of Urbino in marble, the 
well-known art patron painted in a similar 
profile view by Piero della Francesca. It 
is most probably executed by Francesco 
Laurana, who worked in Urbino and is 
known for his great portrait busts of women 
of the Renaissance. 

Several bronze statuettes belong to the 
sixteenth century, the "Bird Catcher" by 
Giovanni da Bologna, the best bronze 
sculptor of this period; a small statuette of 
Hercules by Francesco da San Gallo; and 
an excellent model of a Neptune which 
can be attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. 
To the time of Lorenzo Bernini, the seven- 
teenth century, belong the gilded bronze 
of Saturn and three works by Frangois 
Duquesnoy, who rivaled Bernini in Rome 
and was the most celebrated Flemish 
sculptor in Italy. By him are the two bronze 
busts of Christ and the Virgin, a gift of Mr. 


and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy of Raleigh, and 
the "Sleeping Cupid" in marble, a gift of 
Lady Marcia Cunliffe-Owen of New 
York, (all illustrated in the last issue). 
To the same period belong the two life- 
size marble cupids exhibited on the first 
floor in connection with the paintings of 

Rubens and his school (also reproduced in 
the last issue). They will be described in 
the next number of the Bulletin, together 
with a study devoted to the statuettes by 
Benvenuto Cellini and Francesco da San 

W. R. V. 


February 7 to July 15, 1957 

American Paintings 

Robert Andrew Parker (born 1928), 
"Some People at the Beach" (water color). 
Gift of Mrs. Barbara Wescott, Clinton, 
New Jersey (G.57.13.1). Paper, h:21M, 
w:31 inches. Signed. 

Felix Pasilis (born 1922), "Palm Frond." 
Gift of Mr. James I. Merrill, New York 
(G.57.3.2). Canvas, h:43, w51: inches. 
Exhibited: Panel's Choice 1957, North 
Carolina Museum of Art (cat. 15). 

Grace Hartigan (born 1922), "Interior 
With Mexican Doll." Gift of Mr. James I. 
Merrill, New York (G.57.3.3). Canvas, 
h:80} 2 , w:58} 2 inches. 

Richards Ruben (born 1925), four 
paintings for wall decorations. Gift of 
Erwin-Lambeth, Inc., Thomasville, North 
Carolina (G. 57. 15.1 to .4). Tempera on 
cloth, h:96}2 inches, total width: 365 3^ 
inches. Exhibited: Chicago Art Mart; 
Pasadena Museum of Art; San Francisco 
Museum of Art. 

European Paintings 

Constantin Netscher (Dutch, 1668-1723), 
"Rachel Ruysch in Her Studio." Gift of 
Armand and Victor Hammer, New York 
(G.57.10.1). Canvas, h:45, w:36 inches. 
Coll.: Rt. Hon. Lewis Fry, Bristol; Comte 
de Ganay, Paris. Lit.: Burlington Magazine 
December, 1952, Plate XIX. 

Marco Ricci (Italian, 1676-1729), 
"Shepherd and Shepherdess Near Roman 
Ruins" (grisaille). Companion piece to the 

* Only long-term loans are listed. 

following. Gift of Oscar and Jan Klein, 
New York (G.57.5.1). Oil on cardboard, 

h :8 3^2, w:6^ inches. 

Marco Ricci (Italian, 1676-1729), "Girl 
at Well With Roman Ruins" (grisaille). 
Companion piece to the above. Gift of 
Oscar and Jan Klein, New York (G.57.5.2). 
Oil on cardboard, h:83^, w:6M inches. 

Berlinghiero Berlinghieri (Italian, active 
in Lucca, 1228-1243), "Madonna and 
Child." Painted about 1235-1240. Anony- 
mous loan (L. 57. 16.1).* Canvas over panel, 
h:28%, w:19M inches. Coll.: K. Duggan, 
Stanford de Hope, Essex, England. Lit.: 
The Connoisseur, May 1953, p. 134. 


St. Sebastian. South German, about 
1750. Gift of Mrs. Betty Mont, New York 
(G. 56. 37.1). Boxwood, h:13 inches. 

Madonna and Child, Lower Rhenish, 
about 1500. Gift of Dr. Frederick Mont, 
New York (G.56.38.1). Boxwood, h:83^ 

Head of a Goddess. Greek (School of 
Praxiteles), 4th century B.C. Gift of Mr. 
Nicholas M. Acquavella, New York 
(G. 57. 18.1). Marble, h:9% inches. 

St. Mary Magdalene. French (He de 
France), about 1500 (G.57.14.15). Sand- 
stone, h:59 inches. Coll.: Dikran Kelekian, 

Gothic Capital. French, 14th century 
(G. 57. 14. 16). Limestone, h:10}i inches. 


Buddha With Two Disciples. Indian 
Hellenistic (Gandhara), 1st to 2nd century 
A.D. (G.57.14.40). Bas relief in stone, h:8>i 
w:8^2 inches. 

Avalokitesvara, Lord of Mercy. Indian 
Hellenistic (Gandhara), 1st to 2nd century 
A.D. (G.57.14.41). Bas relief in stone, h:5, 
w:25 inches. 

Buddha With Two Disciples. Indian 
Hellenistic (Gandhara), 1st to 2nd century 
A.D. (G. 57. 14.42). Bas relief in stone, 
h:12, w:12 inches. 

Collection of thirteen Greek and Roman 
figurines and heads, 6th century B.C. to 
2nd century A.D. (G. 57.14.26 to .38). 
Terra cotta and stone. 

The above items gifts of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

Buddha on Horseback. Indian Hellen- 
istic (Gandhara), 1st to 2nd century A.D. 
(G.57.14.44). Bas relief in stone, h:10, 
w: 10 3^2 inches. 

Collection of 45 Egyptian, Greek, 
Roman, Coptic, and other small sculptures 
in terra cotta, stone, bronze, and other 
materials. About 600 B.C. to 500 A.D. 
(L.57. 14.45 to .69; .72, .74 to .76; .79 to 
.88; .91, .92, .94, .96 to .98). 

The above items lent by Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut.* 

Benvenuto Cellini (Italian, 1500-1571), 
Neptune. Probably the model for the 
fountain in the Piazza della Signoria, 
Florence. Anonymous loan (L.57. 1 1 .2). * 
Bronze, h:93^2 inches. 

* Only long-term loans are listed. 

Decorative Arts and Others 

Rug (Kilim). Turkish, 2nd half of 18th 
century. Gift of Dr. Nell Hirschberg, 
Raleigh (G.57.19.1). Wool, h:70, w:53 

Linen runner. Spanish, 19th century. 
Gift of Mr. George Poland, Raleigh 
(G.57.9.1). Linen, length 85, width 24 

Altar set. Spanish, 19th century. Gift of 
Mr. George Poland, Raleigh (G.57.9.2 a-c). 
Linen; a: length 101, width 70 inches; 
b and c: length 27 } 2 , width 18} 2 inches. 

Flemish Verdure Tapestry with Swans. 
Brussels, 17th century. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Burrows McNeir, New Bern (G.57.20.1). 
Woven in colored wools and silks, h : 1 1 1 3^2, 
w: 187 3 2 inches. Coll.: George McNeir, 
New York, from 1929. 

Collection of eleven Coptic textile frag- 
ments, 3rd to 8th century A.D. (G. 57. 14.1 
to .11). 

Lace fragment, Monkey Design. Peruvian 
(Chimu), about 1300-1438 A.D. (G.57.- 
14.14) Embroidery on gauze, alpaca and 
cotton, h:1834, w:\5^i inches. 

Portrait Head from a Mummy. Egyptian 
(Ptolemaic) 323-30 B.C. (G.57.14.13). 
Plaster, h:10 inches. 

Bowl with fish design. Coptic (Wadi 
Sarga?), 5th to 6th century (G.57.14.12). 
Terra cotta, h:8, diam:12 inches. 

Corinthian vase, 6th century B.C. 
(G.57.14.17). H:16 inches. 

Top-handle wine-skin shaped vase. South 


Italian, 4th century B.C. (G.57. 14.18). 
H:7 1 2 inches. 

Amphora. Greek, 4th century B.C. 
(G.57. 14.25). H:15M inches. 

Collection of six Greek vases, 7th to 
3rd century B.C. (G.57. 14.19 to .24). 

Black Janus vase. Roman, 1st to 2nd 
century A.D. (G.57. 14.39). H:7 l A inches. 

Attic vase, red figures on black 
background. Greek, 5th century B.C. 

The above objects gifts of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

Relief with Harp Player. Egyptian (Tell 
'Amarna), 1377-1358 B.C. (L.57.14.66). 
Limestone, h:16, w:15 inches. 

Two Egyptian ceramic figures (amulets?). 
(L.57. 14.70 and .71). 

Five canopic jars. Egyptian (Saitic), 
663-525 B.C. (L.57. 14.73 and .99 to .102). 

* Only long-term loans are listed. 

Child's Tunic. Coptic, 5th century A.D. 
(L.57.14.77). H:14, w:17 inches. 

Fragment of Fostat pottery showing man 
with sacrificial knife holding head of 
lamb. Egypt, 9th century A.D. H:5, w:4 
inches (L.57. 14. 89). 

Pectoral Painting from Mummy Case. 
Egyptian, Saitic (663-525 B.C.). (L.57.- 
14.78). Plaster on cloth, h:20 inches. 

Section of Mummy Case with Goddess 
Nut. Egyptian (Saitic), 663-525 B.C. H:15, 
w:5 inches. (L.57. 14.90). 

Egyptian engraved plaque with falcon 
and lotus plants and winged sun. Bronze, 
h:7, w:43 2 inches. (L.57. 14. 93). 

Mummy Cloth. Egyptian (Saitic) 663- 
525 B.C. H:84, w:28 inches. (L.57. 14. 95). 

Coptic textile fragment. Polychrome 
"comic strip" character, h:13, w:7 inches. 

Black-figured Crater with Satyr and 
Dancing Nymphs. Greek, 5th century B.C. 
H:6^ 2 inches (L.57. 14.104). 

The above objects lent by Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut.* 


Portrait Head From a Mummy. Egyptian (Ptolemaic), 323-30 B.C. Plaster, height 10 inches. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 


Above: Textile Fragment. Coptic, 5th to 6th Century A.D. 6x12 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

Below: Textile Fragment. Coptic, about 5th Century A.D. 8 x 15 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 


Gothic Capital (two views). French, 14th Century. Limestone, height 10}4 inches. Gift of Dr. 
and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

St. Mary Magdalene (two views). French (He Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, 
de France), about 1500. Sandstone, height 59 Connecticut, 
inches. Formerly Dikran Kelekian Collection. 

St. Sebastian. South German, about 1750. 
Boxwood, height 13 inches. Gift of Mrs. Betty 
Mont, New York. 

Madonna and Child. Lower Rhenish, about 1500. 
Boxwood, height 8j-2 inches. Gift of Dr. 
Frederick Mont, New York. 



Officers and Board of Directors of the State Art Society 

Governor Luther H. Hodges Honorary President 

Mr. Robert Lee Humber President 

Mr. Edwin Gill Vice-President 

Mrs. James H. Cordon Treasurer 

Vice-Presidents at Large Elected 

Mrs. Frank Taylor Dr. Clarence Poe 

Mrs. Jacques Busbee Mrs. Isabelle Henderson 

Mr. John V. Allcott Dr. Clemens Sommer 

Mr. Egbert L. Davis 

Appointed by the Governor Mr. Henry L. Bridges 

Dr. Sylvester Green Mr. Gregory Ivy 

Mrs. Charles Cannon Mrs. J. H. B. Moore 

Mr. Ralph C. Price Mrs. Elizabeth Hamrick Mack 

Ex Officio 

Hon. Luther H. Hodges Governor of North Carolina 

Dr. Charles M. Carroll State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Mr. George B. Patton Attorney General 

Mrs. C. B. Clegg Art Chairman, North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs 

Staff of the Museum 

Dr. W. R. Valentiner ' Director 

James B. Byrnes Associate Director 

Ben F. Williams Curator 

May Davis Hill Librarian and Registrar 

William T. Beckwith Budget Officer 

Peggy Jo Kirby Secretary to Director 

Peggy Noblin Secretary 

Edith Johnson Sales Desk 

William A. Weathersby Library Assistant 

Mary Jerman Panton . . Information Assistant 

James Long Museum Technician 

Branton L. Olive Packer and Shipper 

James R. Hampton Head Museum Guard 


Hours: Open Tuesdays through Saturdays 10-5; Sundays 2-6; Closed Mondays, and 
legal holidays. 

Telephone: TE 4-3611, Ext. 7569. 

Tours: May be scheduled upon advance written request. 

Membership in the North Carolina State Art Society: Annual $5.00; Contributor 
$10.00; Sustaining $25.00; Patron $50.00; Life $100.00; Donor $500.00; Benefactor 

All gifts to the Museum, whether of objects or money, are tax deductible. Names of 
donors are permanently attached to objects purchased with donated funds. 



A specially arranged exhibition by the Museum of some fifty paintings and sculp- 
tures. The core of this exhibition will be a number of works from the Museum's 
own collection; other items will be borrowed from public and private collections through- 
out the country. The exhibition will trace the mother and child theme in art through 
history, from its beginning to the present. From the Museum's own collection, paintings 
by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri, Guido Reni, Del Sarto, Cima, Rubens, and Van Dyck will 
be featured. A catalogue for the exhibition is contemplated. Opening dates to be announced. 

EXHIBITION." A special exhibition travelling under the auspices of the Olsen Founda- 
tion featuring the works of contemporary painters throughout the world. This exhibition 
made up of smaller canvases surveys the impact of abstract painting on the world today. 
This show will open in the Museum and will be available for a limited number of bookings 
to other art centers and colleges throughout the state without charge. This is the first 
in a series of exhibitions offered by the Olsen Foundation which will be available from 
time to time on the same basis. 

BITION." An annual exhibition sponsored by the North Carolina State Art Society 
open to native North Carolinians and to other artists who have lived in the state for the 
twelve months immediately preceding October 1957, or for a period of five years at some 
other time. The exhibition will be juried by a panel of experts invited from outside the 
region. Funds are being solicited in order to acquire some of the prize works through 
Art Society purchase. This exhibition will be previewed by those attending the annual 
Art Society meeting on December 4. 


An exhibition of paintings by the late Bradley Walker Tomlin (1899-1953), distinguished 
American contemporary artist. This exhibition is being shared with the University of 
California at Los Angeles. 

During the fall and winter seasons, the Museum plans to present exhibitions of decorative 
arts, contemporary design, and a few special lectures, the details for which will be an- 
nounced in the local press. 

The North Carolina useum of Art 


6882 xcg 




Permit No. 453 

Fall 1957 



Volume I Autumn 1957 Number 3 


An Unknown Portrait by Peter Gaertner 

By Paul Wescher 

Cellini's Neptune Model 5 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Joan of Arc by Rubens 11 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Sully's Copy of the "Lansdowne" Washington 17 

By James B. Byrnes 

Jacob Marling, Early Raleigh Painter 2 

By Ben F. Williams 

Exhibition of Paintings by Enrique Montenegro 3 

By James B. Byrnes 

Photographic Credits: page 18, Bill Gulley, State Advertising Division, Raleigh. 

Cover: Benvenuto Cellini (Italian, 1500-1571), Neptune. About 1560. Bronze, height 
9^2 inches. Long-term loan from Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, Jr., Raleigh. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin is published quarterly. Copyright, 1957, by the North Carolina Museun 
of Art, 107 East Morgan Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Subscriptions $1.00 a year. Single copies $.25. Sent fre 
to North Carolina State Art Society members. Four weeks' notice required for change of address. 


By Paul Wescher 

Four years ago when the North Carolina 
|j Museum of Art acquired the realistic 
! portrait of an old man by Peter Gaertner, 
j signed and dated 1524, it was the only 
lone known of its early kind, as all the other 

portraits by Gaertner are of much later 

date and represent an entirely different 
jtype of idealized court portraiture. But, 
||as in all science one discovery leads to 
:! another, it did not take long for a second 
I early portrait by Gaertner's hand to be 

retrieved from an auction sale in London 
iland bought by the Museum of Heidelberg 

(Germany), which under its able director, 
[Dr. Georg Poensgen, successfully maintains 
ijthe tradition of the well-known founder of 
Ithe famous castle, Ottheinrich of the Pfalz. 
jFrom 1537 onward this duke-elector had 
fl Peter Gaertner attached to his permanent 
jlservice as court painter, and it was for 
Ithis reason that the director of the Heidel- 
iiberg Museum was interested in purchasing 
Ithe newly discovered portrait. 

According to costume and appearance, 
If this portrait also represents a citizen, be 
[|he a patrician or a merchant or an artisan, 

rather than an aristocrat, and the strong 

features of the sitter are brought to life with 
[the same simplicity in both delineation 

(and modeling as in the Raleigh portrait, 

jso that even without the well-known 
[(signature and the date 1524 which is 

found in the upper right-hand corner, one 
liwould not hesitate to recognize the painter. 

But the comparison also shows that 
[Gaertner in these years was, like most of 

1 See Journal of the Wallers Art Gallery (1954), p. 71 fl'. 

the German painters, able to express the 
individual character much more strongly 
than in his later years, and, if we com- 
pare the two early paintings, with en- 
tirely adequate means. Thus while the 
Raleigh portrait shows a rather pale com- 
plexion with slight shading which empha- 
sizes the light blue color of the eyes, so 
typical for the expression of an older 
person, the portrait in Heidelberg on the 
other hand, by the brownish tints, strong 
modelling and dark eyes, expresses the 
entirely different personality of this man, 
whose age is indicated by the inscription 
as being forty-nine years. It is also note- 
worthy to observe how easily and differently 
Gaertner was able to render such materials 
as the furs around the collars or the gold 
embroidered cap which for a time was the 
fashion among the well-to-do citizens of 
the south German towns. In this respect 
he showed the same unerring draftsman- 
ship in which most of the German masters 
of the late Gothic and early Renaissance 
period excelled, the calligraphy which 
originated in their drawing and from there 
was transferred to the painting. 

In a previous article on Peter Gaertner, 1 
I pointed out that at the time when he 
was engaged as painter to the court ol 
Pfalz Neuburg and executed in the years 
after 1537 the many princely portraits 
which are still preserved in the National 
Museum in Munich and the Museums of 
Augsburg, Schleissheim and Burghausen, 
he was no longer a young man, and the 
two portraits in Raleigh and Heidelberg, 
dated 1524 and 1523 respectively, do not 


Peter Gaertner (German, active 1523-1537), Portrait of a Man. Dated 1523. Heidel- 
berg, Kurpfalzisches Museum. 


appear as works of a beginner, so that, as 
no date of his birth or birthplace has been 
documented, we may with some prob- 
ability assume that he was born around 
1500 or even earlier. This would also 
explain the outspoken Gothic approach to 
ortraiture which we observe in these two 
pictures and which is still apparent in his 
>nly signed figure painting in the Walters 
\rt Gallery in Baltimore, which I published 
n the previous occasion. As I have ex- 
plained, the conditions of German art 
lpon which the Renaissance ideas had 
)een grafted in a rather superficial way 
hanged rapidly in the decade after Diirer's 
ieath (1528) and after the spreading of 
he Reformation in many important cities 
f southern Germany. The guild system 
nd the artisan lost their hold on the rule 
f affairs, and consequently a shift of 
iatronage took place from the citizens of 
he independent towns to the princes of the 
aller and larger states of which Germany 
/as then composed. While, as we said, the 
lain goal of the former portraits was the 
rong and realistic rendering of the indi- 

vidual character, which indeed reached 
there a unique height, that of the later 
period tended toward idealization similar 
to that of the Romans in the Imperial 
time and was influenced by the inter- 
national pattern set in Italy, France, and 
Flanders. Thus Gaertner presents the most 
perfect example for this change in per- 
ception, which occurred on a more general 
basis between the third and fifth decades 
of the sixteenth century, and the newly 
discovered picture amplifies in the most 
fortunate way what the portrait in the 
North Carolina Museum of Art already 
indicated. The particular gift of the late 
Gothic German painters, a gift based 
mainly on their capacities for draftsman- 
ship in reducing the natural image to 
some salient lines and simplified modelling, 
has not been entirely recognized in this 
country, but there can be little doubt that 
it will find sooner or later the full appreci" 
ation it deserves. 

Dr. Wescher is director of the J. Paul 
Getty Museum, Malibu, California. 


Peter Gaertner, Portrait of an Old Man. Dated 1524. Panel, 19x13 inches. From the 
Museum's collection. 


By W. R. Valentiner 

Aside from the Perseus in the Loggia dei 
jLanzi in Florence and the saltcellar in 
the Vienna Museum, Benvenuto Cellini is 
jmost famous on account of his autobi- 
ography, which is indeed a work of unique 
:haracter in the literature of the world. 

Not only does he tell this story of his 
life in the most entertaining and dramatic 
fashion, presenting himself at the same 
:ime as a hero in the style of Dumas' 
musketeers and as a most efficient and 
nventive artist, but he also unconsciously 
rives an excellent lesson on how happiness 
Iran be attained in life. For in spite of all 
lis terrific troubles and struggles, he always 
:omes through triumphantly, believing in 
lis own courage and luck, and in his 

Happiness in his case — and perhaps not 
)nly in his — is the result of his accomplish- 
nents in his work, which fill him with 
;uch pride that he has to tell the whole 
vorld about it. If by chance he deviates 
)y telling stories of fights or battles, like 
he "sacco di Roma," he knows how to 
)lace himself in the center of action, but 
hen he suddenly remembers that it is of 
he greatest importance to relate his artistic 
ichievements, as they will last longer than 
he ephemeral deeds he accomplished with 
lis sword or his gun. 

We have to thank his taking himself so 
eriously for the fact that in his biography 
ie enumerates probably every work which 
ie ever executed. Due to the careful 
inscription he gives, it has been possible 
"O identify nearly all these works, with 
he exception of the many smaller gold- 

Fig. 1. Benvenuto Cellini (Italian, 1500-1571), 
Neptune. About 1560. Bronze, height 9}4 inches. 
Long-term loan from Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. 
Levy, Jr., Raleigh. 

smith pieces, such as small vases, medals, 
clasps, seals, and so on, which were mostly 
executed in his earlier period. 

If thus far no attempt has been made to 
identify his models for the Neptune foun- 
tain of about 1560 on the Piazza della 
Signoria in Florence, the reason probably 
has been that a considerable number of 
bronze statuettes representing Neptune 
drawn by his seahorses still exist in different 
collections which are related either to the 


Fig. 2. Benvenuto Cellini (Italian, 1500-1571), 
Minerva. Bronze statuette at the base of the 
Perseus in the Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence. 

Neptune fountain in Florence or to that 
of Giovanni da Bologna in Bologna (1563), 
and that it is not easy to differentiate the 
Cellini composition from those of other 
sculptors who were competing for the 
Florentine fountain. Yet it is quite likely 
that a model by Cellini still exists, as he 
devotes almost as much space to its descrip- 
tion as he does to the execution of the 
Perseus models (now preserved in the 
Museo Nazionale), and besides, in the 
inventory drawn up after Cellini's death 
these models for the Neptune are mentioned. 

The long story of the competition for 
the Neptune fountain, as told by Cellini, 

deals mainly with the court intrigues in 
which the Grand Duchess played the I 
essential part: She could not be swayed \ 
from her decision to let her favorite sculptor, I 
Bandinelli, receive the commission, and 1 
after his death she fought to the last in the 
interest of Bandinelli's pupil, AmmanatiJ 
The idea of placing the large fountain! 
in the center of the Piazza della Signorian 
seems to go back to Bandinelli, who, after ; 
finishing his controversial group of "Her- 
cules and Cacus" in front of the Palazzo,.! 
Vecchio, wanted to add another, even 
more important work of his, in its immediate,! 
neighborhood. Upon his wish, a large 
block was quarried on order of the Grand) 
Duke in the early forties of the century., 
The block was shipped on the Arno to the ( 
Villa Medici at Poggio a Cajano, and it; 
lay there for years until after the death oft 
Bandinelli, when Cellini conceived the|! 
idea of making two small models which: 
could be used for the Neptune of thei 

When the Grand Duke came unex- 
pectedly to Cellini's studio, the artist 
showed him the two models. He likec 
them both, one more than the other, anc 
asked Cellini to finish carefully the on( 
he liked best. The Cardinal of Santz 
Fiore told Cellini at the same time tha 
he had recently been in Poggio a Cajanc 
with the Grand Duke and that when the} 
passed the marble block, which was stili 
lying there, the Grand Duke had said tc ; 
him that the block was destined "for rw 
friend Benvenuto, who has made a splendk 
model for the execution of the Neptune.' 

When Cellini had finished the mode 
which the Grand Duke liked so much, h< 
showed it to him on the occasion of anothe 

visit which Cosimo made to Cellini's 
studio. He was accompanied this time by 
two ambassadors to whom he confided, 
according to Cellini's story, "Upon my 
word, Benvenuto deserves the marble." 1 

But behind Cellini's back the persistent 
efforts of the Grand Duchess, who seems 
to have sworn that Cellini should not get 
1 the order, changed the situation, and all 
that Cellini could accomplish was that a 
competition be arranged in which the 
following sculptors should participate by 
i presenting life-size models of the Neptune: 
namely, Giovanni da Bologna, who worked 
\on his model in the cloister of Santa Croce; 
IVincenzo Danti, an excellent follower of 
I Michelangelo, who had his studio for this 
i purpose at the house of Ottaviano Medici; 
fCioli, who worked in Pisa; and Ammanati 
and Cellini, who both were allowed to use 
the Loggia dei Lanzi, which was divided 
into two sections, as their workshop. After 
the artists had made sufficient progress, the 
(Grand Duke came first to visit Ammanati, 
with whose work he was not especially 
(pleased, if we are to believe Cellini. Then 
[he went next door to Cellini, who describes 
ithe visit as follows (we have to quote 
(literally as it gives us an important clue 
jto the identification of our Neptune bronze 
jstatuette) : 

No sooner had he entered the en- 
closure and cast his eyes upon my 
work, when he gave signs of being 
greatly satisfied. Then he walked all 
around it, stopping at each of the 
four points of view exactly as the 
ripest experts would have done. . . . 
Then he turned to his attendants, 
praising my performance and saying: 

benvenuto Cellini, Autobwgi aphy (tr. Symonds), 
New York, Modern Library, p. 459. 
2 Autobiography, p. 462. 

"The small model which I saw in his 
house pleased me greatly, but this has 
far exceeded it in merit." 2 

What now gives us the right to attribute 
to Cellini the bronze group from the Mor- 
timer Schiff collection, which has been ac- 
quired under the name of a Florentine 
master at the end of the sixteenth century 
and is now on long-term loan to the Mu- 
seum from Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, 
Jr.? In its elongated proportion, with the 
comparatively small head, it is characteristic 
of the mannerist style of the followers of 
Michelangelo of the second half of the six- 
teenth century. The contrapposto movement 
of arms and legs, which remind us of Cel- 
lini's Perseus, is no doubt derived from the 
great master, who of all sculptors was most 
admired by Cellini. The forms are, how- 
ever, more open than Michelangelo's, and 
show the character of the bronze sculptor, 
who builds the composition up from the 
clay model, while Michelangelo preferred 
the closed forms appropriate to the marble 
sculptor. Typical for the master of the 
Neptune is the exaggerated modeling of 
the thorax with markings of the ribs and 
the breast and this is just what we observe 
in the bronze statuettes of Cellini, combined 
with the elegance of the body in a classical 
tendency which Cellini also followed. The 
Neptune head goes back to a Jupiter type 
(like the Zeus of Otricoli) which Cellini 
used more than once. We learn from his 
memoirs that he was fond of studying 
antique sculptures, which in his earliest 
youth he found in the Camposanto in Pisa 
and later in cameos and medals, of which 
he mentions one (p. 53): "Among many 
bronze medals I obtained one, upon which 
was a head of Jupiter. It was the largest I 


Figs. 3 and 4. Details of Figure 1. 

have ever seen, the head of the most perfect 
execution. . . ." 

The execution of the statuette, with the 
fine chiseling and the artificial patina, is 
that of a goldsmith, especially in the 
precise design of the two seahorses, which 
remind us of those on the Vienna saltcellar. 

The two seahorses are turned in different 
directions, in contrast to Ammanati's and 
other sculptors' similar compositions, where 
groups of three or four seahorses are all 
directed to the front. This brings us to a 
very essential point: Cellini was one of the 
first to work consciously, with a definite 
theory, on all-round sculptures, while 
Michelangelo's works were still connected 
with the wall behind them. He stresses in 
his story about the Neptune model, that 
it should be seen from four sides. This can 
be easily verified in our model if we look 
at the Neptune from the two profiles, 
from the front and from the back. These 
different views are so clearly marked that 
it is almost impossible to overlook them in 
a careful inspection. And we can well 
understand that the Grand Duke, who 
undoubtedly had been instructed before by 
Cellini on his theory of representing free- 
standing sculptures so that they appeared 
perfect from all sides, was delighted when 
the artist approved of his studying the 
sculpture from different angles. 3 

Before Cellini could finish the large 
model of the Neptune, he became seriously 
ill. As soon as he was better, he worked on 
a marble crucifix which he wanted to 
donate to one of the churches. He had, 
however, not forgotten the work on the 
Neptune fountain. When the crucifix was 

3 For a criticism of Cellini's theory, see Herbert Read, 
The Art of Sculpture, New York, Pantheon, 1956, pp. 

finished, the Grand Duke and the Duchess 
came to see it; they were both full of admira- 
tion. Cellini took advantage of their good 
humour and presented it to them, obviously 
having it in mind to turn their thinking 
toward the Neptune fountain, which was 
not yet definitely commissioned to anyone. 
After he had offered the crucifix, he asked 
them to come to the ground floor of his 
dwelling . . . "and on entering the house, 
beheld my little model of the Neptune and 
the fountain, which had not yet been seen 
by the Duchess. This struck her with such 
force that she raised a cry of indescribable 
astonishment, and turning to the Duke, 
exclaimed: 'Upon my life, I never dreamed 
it could be one-tenth part so beautiful !' 
The Duke replied by repeating more than 
once: 'Did I not tell you so?' Thus they 
continued talking for some while greatly 
in my honour. Afterwards the Duchess 
called me to her side; and when she had 
uttered many expressions of praise which 
sounded like excuses (they might indeed 
have been construed into asking for for- 
giveness), she told me that she should like 
me to quarry a block of marble to my 
taste, and then to execute the work. In 
reply to these gracious speeches I said 
that, if their most illustrious Excellencies 
would provide me with the necessary 
accommodations, I should gladly for their 
sakes put my hand to such an arduous 
undertaking. The Duke responded on the 
moment: 'Benvenuto, you shall have all the 
accommodations you can ask for; and I 
will myself give you more besides, which 
shall surpass them far in value.' With 
these agreeable words they left me, and I 
remained highly satisfied." 

But here we come to the end of the story. 


"Many weeks passed," writes Cellini, "but 
of me nothing more was spoken. This 
neglect drove me half mad with despair." 
Cellini was about to accept the offer of 
the Queen of France to return to France, 
but was prevented from doing so by the 
Grand Duke, who, obviously becoming- 
aware of the injustice he had done to 
Cellini, paid him 1,500 crowns for the 
crucifix, which later would be given to the 
King of Spain (now in the Escorial). 
The crucifix and the Neptune model are 

the last works Cellini mentions in his 
autobiography, which ends with the year I 
1562. In spite of the appreciation of Cellini's 
model by the Grand Duke, Ammanati 
was finally rewarded (in 1563) with the 
Neptune fountain — quite to the detriment 
of the arts, as Ammanati's Neptune is one 'I 
of the least worthy sculptures of monu- 1 
mental size of the High Renaissance in 
Florence, far inferior to the other works 
of this master and to Cellini's model. 




By W. R. Valentiner 

If we exclude Ingres, whose "Joan of 
Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII' 1 is 
a rather cold, classisistic performance, 
Rubens is the only one of the great early 
masters who occupied himself with the 
strange and fascinating figure of the French 
liberation movement in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Although the documents of her most 
cruel and unfair trial with all its horrible 
details were not known as they are today, 
Joan of Arc's memory had been kept alive 
through the centuries following her execu- 
tion. There were a few minor French artists 
of the seventeenth century who painted 
her in a series of the heroines of the past 
in conventional representations. But 
Rubens, with his remarkable scholarly 
knowledge of past history, always went to 
the bottom of the sources available during 
his time when he tackled a historical 
subject. An early likeness of Joan of Arc 
:ould be found in the crude statuette 
placed in a niche of Joan's home in 
Domremy where she kneels in prayer, 
wearing around her neck a stiff collar 
*vhich points to the late sixteenth century 
is the time of the execution of the figure. 
3ut the best likeness was perhaps that of 
he large crucifixion group once standing 
ipon the bridge at Orleans, which was 
rected by the pious women of that town 
it the end of the fifteenth century. Here, 

1 The reproductions of the prints from the book by 
I. Wallon, Jeanne a" Arc, Paris, 1876, have been kindly 
rovided by the Frick Library (research done by M. 
teinbach). I am indebted to Mr. Edwin Gill for com- 
lunicating this information to me and for other sug- 
estions used in this article. 

also, Joan was shown in armor kneeling 
and praying in front of a crucifix. King 
Charles kneels opposite her, and both arc 
in profile. The size of the crucifix is enor- 
mous compared to the two figures who, in 
medieval fashion, like donors in the paint- 
ings of the period, are shown in almost 
miniature proportion, as it behooves earthly 
figures appearing next to the heavenly one. 

This stone monument was destroyed by 
the Calvinists in 1562. Rubens, therefore, 
could not have seen the original. A second 
monument was erected on the Orleans 
bridge in 1571 (destroyed during the 
revolution of 1792). As we do not know of 
any journey that Rubens made to Orleans, 
it is likely that he became acquainted 
with the first or the second monument 
through prints. Of the first monument a 
woodcut existed (see Figure 1 ) ; of the 
second, an engraving (see Figure 2). 1 In 
comparing them with Rubens' represen- 
tation, we believe that the heavier forms 
of Joan of Arc may speak for his having 
used the second monument; but the similar 
position of the sword and the fact that 
Joan prays before a crucifix and not 
before a Pieta. make it more likely that the 
artist had the woodcut of the earlier monu- 
ment in mind. Whether Rubens used the 
one or the other reproduction of the stone 
monument in Orleans is not essential, as 
this historical knowledge was for him 
obviously only a small factor in the crea- 
tion of an otherwise completely original 

1 1 

In isolating" the individual figure from 
the group, the artist had to reverse the 
I proportions in the relationship between the 
| devotee and the objeet of her prayer. In 
I the monuments Christ and the Pieta are 
j large in size and the praying maiden is 
ij quite small, while in the painting she is more 
I than life-size and the crucifix on the altar 
I is small. Rubens managed to give the 
I figure a reality and dramatic force that 
I is completely lacking in the simple outlines 
I of the engravings. He places her in an 
■! interior — in a chapel, or a royal camp, or 
Ij the palace — where she prays in deep 
ji emotion before going into battle. Instead 
I of being in front of the figure of Joan, the 
M helmet is placed on the other side, filling 
:| the space between her feet and the border 
:| of the composition. The intensity of her 
"ij prayer is expressed in her hands, which 
; | are gloveless (different from the represen- 
; I tation in the engravings), and her gloves 
■ are thrown at her feet. The palms touch 
j one another warmly, and we see the un- 
|j evenly spread fingers trembling with excite- 
! ment. 

But most essential is the fact that Rubens 
I takes the figure out of the flatness of the 
i profile, giving her body a greater vitality 
\ i and bringing out her volume through a 
: J slight turning of the torso. The kneeling 
ti feet are not placed parallel as in the prints, 
. Iibut the right foot is moved forward, in 
:« front of the left, the body moves in a curve, 
'land the head is slightly turned from the 
j Iright to the left. 

In accordance with the baroque princi- 
: 4 * pies, the center part of the composition is 
y.- brought forward to the front, while the 
: jsurrounding sections near the borders are 
• ■pushed towards the depth in a counter- 

movement. The volume of the figure is 
stressed through a strong modeling in 
contrast to the brilliant light effects on the 
suit of armor. On the other hand, the 
countermovement is started in the lower 
section of the painting where a dark fold 
of the rug runs into the picture from the 
lower left corner, meeting in the center 
the curve formed by one of the gloves and 
the left knee and foot coming up from the 
right corner. This movement towards the 
depth is continued on the left side in the 
perspective lines of the pillar and the 
crucifix, on the right side in the feathers of 
the helmet which are diminishing towards 
the background, pointing to the distant 
view of a landscape with clouded sky. 
Thus, while the figure is surrounded every- 
where by a depth movement, the torso, 
head and arms are brought forward almost 
into the plane of the spectator. 

Out of the stiff little figure of the engrav- 
ings the great master has created a powerful, 
full-blooded young woman, blond and 
Flemish in type, robust as a peasant, yet 
showing in her attitude the dignity of a 
princess worthy of the luxurious surround- 
ings in which, thanks to her unusual 
destiny, she is placed. 

The color scheme could not be otherwise 
than to be ruled by the fervent red which 
dominates the composition in the color of 
the curtain and the carpet, penetrates her 
cheeks and hands, and rises like flames 
around her as if symbolizing her tragic 
end. Lighter waves seem to rise from her 
hands and head towards heaven. A few 
touches of blue and yellow (in the reflections 
of the armor and the feathers of the helmet) 
balance the emotional masses of warm red. 

The painting is not known in recent 



Fig. 3. Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577-1640), Joan of Arc. Canvas, 72 x 46>£ 
inches. From the Museum's collection. 



literature, but it is not difficult to date. 2 
It must have been executed in the second 
decade, at the time when Rubens painted 
similar beautiful Flemish types with long, 
blond hair falling upon their shoulders, 
figures of solid volume painted with com- 
pact brushwork like the "Venus" in repre- 
sentations in Antwerp and Leningrad, 
"The Rape of the Sabine Women" in 
London, and various Bacchanalian com- 
positions. But, in contrast to such tempes- 

2 The only good description of earlier times is by 
Johanna Schopenhauer, the mother of the famous 
philosopher, who during an excursion to the Lower 
Rhine and Belgium saw the painting in a collection of 
a banker, Schaffhausen, at Cologne and was deeply 
moved by it (1831). She says that it had been given by 
the French King to the Archbishop in Cologne (see 
M. Rooses, L'Oeuvre de P.P. Rubens, 1890, Vol. IV, No. 
816) which cannot be verified. About the pedigree see 
Catalogue of Paintings, Raleigh, The North Carolina 
Museum of Art, 1956, No. 133. 

tuous compositions, our painting has a 
more personal, almost intimate character, j 
as much as is possible in so extrovert a 
temperament as that of Rubens. That the I 
artist painted it for his own pleasure may 
be concluded from the fact that he kept 
it in his collection until the end of his life 
when it is mentioned in his inventory as 
"La Pucelle d'Orleans." 

At the time the painting was created 
(1615-20), Rubens already had quite a 
number of helpers in his studio, but they 
were mostly engaged in executing the 
battle and hunting scenes and the altar- 
pieces of enormous size containing masses 
of figures. We believe that the painting of j 
Joan of Arc was executed by Rubens' own I 



By James B. Byrnes 

On January 11, 1817, William Miller, 
(he governor of North Carolina, wrote two 
letters — one to Daniel L. Peck of Phila- 
delphia and the other to the artist Rem- 
brandt Peale, then residing in Baltimore. 
The letters stated that the legislative 
session of the previous year had empowered 
him to "procure two full length paintings 
of Gen'l Washington to be hung up in the 
legislative halls." Governor Miller asked 
Peck for the cost of such paintings, com- 
plete with frames, by the best artist in 
Philadelphia, and he further stated that 
he "understood Stewarts [sic] likeness of the 
Gen'l to be the best and should wish to 
have it taken from this, if it be in Phila- 
delphia, as I have no doubt it is." He asked 
the same question of Peale regarding the 
paintings, frames, and price delivered in 

Peale, in his lengthy reply, indicated 
that his price for full-length figures on 
foot would be $1,500 each. He also offered 
to paint an equestrian portrait of the 
General for two or three thousand dollars. 1 

Peck replied recommending Thomas 

1 In 1956 the Museum received a "Porthole Portrait 
of George Washington" by Rembrandt Peale as a gift 
in memory of Dr. Charles Lee Smith by his wife, Cora 
Vaughan Smith, and by his children, William Oliver 
Smith, Charles Lee Smith, Jr., and Mrs. Katherine 
Smith Hardison of Raleigh. 

2 See, for a discussion of "The Passage of the Dela- 
ware," "Thomas Sully," by James B. Eyrnes, The 
North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin, I, No. 1 (Sprine, 
1957), p. 19. 

3 "However much we may be disposed to honor the 
virtue and perpetuate the fame of the immoitf I patriots 
yet it appears to me that it will look a little lil e over- 
doing the matter, to have a marble statue, a.nd two 
portraits of the same person, in the same building." 
Letter to the General Assembly of the State of North 
Carolina from John Branch, Governor, Raleigh, 
November 23, 1819, Journals of the Hons- of Commons, 
1819, p. 20. 

Sully as the "first artist" in Philadelphia 
and enclosed a note by Sully, who offered 
to do the portraits, one a copy of the 
Stuart painted for Mr. Bingham hanging 
in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 
Arts, for four hundred dollars plus one 
hundred dollars for a frame. He observed 
that Sully preferred the bust of Washington 
by the Italian sculptor Ceracchi in the 
same gallery, considering it a superior 
likeness, and for his second portrait he 
offered to paint the ill-fated "Passage of 
the Delaware" for six hundred dollars. 2 

The Governor chose Sully and instructed 
Peck to have him proceed. 

From then on a great deal of correspond- 
ence was exchanged until, late in Novem- 
ber, 1818, a letter announced that the 
painting was in transit and would be 
delivered by Robert Hunte of Orange 
County. Charges were, for freight from 
Philadelphia, $4.80; for storage, carting, 
etc., $2.00; total, $6.80. 

The following year the succeeding gover- 
nor, John Branch, had the unpleasant task 
of informing Sully that the second painting, 
"The Passage of the Delaware," which 
Sully painted on a canvas seventeen feet 
long and twelve feet high, excluding frame, 
would not fit the space ten feet long and 
nine feet two inches high allotted in the 
Capitol, and that he regretted that his 
predecessors had not forwarded the exact 
dimensions before the work had progressed 
so far. In Governor Branch's letter it was 
also pointed out that the commission for 
the marble statue of Washington had been 
given to Canova. 3 Sully released the State 
from the obligation and the painting was 


Thomas Sully (American, 1783-1872), Portrait of George Washing- 
ton. Painted, 1816, after Gilbert Stuart's Lansdowne portrait in 
the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. State 
Capitol, Raleigh. 


Thomas Sully, The Passage of the Delaware. Dated 1819. Canvas, 146^2 x 207 inches. Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston. 

eventually sold. It is now the property of 
the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. 

The copy of the Stuart "Landsdowne" 
portrait of George Washington by Sully 
was installed in the House Chamber in 
the Capitol in Raleigh in 181 8. 4 A news- 
paper account of June 23, 1831, tells of 
the dramatic rescue of the painting along 
with the speaker's stand and the state 
files, as well as the tragic loss of the Canova 

4 "[No.] 1894. Washington, General George. Copied 
from Portrait by Gilbert Stuart. Painted for State of 
North Carolina, begun Oct. 17th, 1817, finished Feb. 
7, 1818. Size 9 ft. x 6 ft. Price $400.00." Edward Biddle 
and Mantle Fielding, The Life and Works of Thomas 
Sully, Philadelphia, Wickersham Press, 1921. 

5 The Raleigh Register, June 23, 1831. 

statue despite the attempts of citizens to 
roll the massive marble out of the building. 5 
To replace the ruined Capitol, the State 
chose the best architectural firm of the 
day, Town and Davis of New York, whose 
original adaptation of neoclassic design to 
the project has made the building one of 
the most outstanding public structures in 
America. The Sully copy was placed in 
the new building in the place of honor, 
upon completion of the construction in 
1832. It now hangs above the speaker's 
rostrum behind the American flag. 

Over the years, Sully's name had become 
somewhat detached from the painting, and 


it was generally dismissed as "a copy after 
Stuart." Some thoughtth at it was executed 
long after the fire. With recent inquiry and 

6 Parenthetically, the commissioning of the important 
State Fair Arena in Raleigh, designed by the late 
Matthew Nowicki and completed in 1953, is an extension 
of this early tradition; witness the acclaim this structure 
has received from many of the leading architects of 
the world. 

checking of the records, (he painting will 
begin to take on new prominence, and 
plans are afoot to have it cleaned and 
re-installed, since it demonstrates North 
Carolina's early interest in art and the 
determination of its progressive leaders to 
seek out and commission outstanding artists 
of (heir own time. r ' 



By Ben F. Williams 

Jacob Marling came to Raleigh some 
time before 1813, for his name is mentioned 
in connection with the North Carolina 
Museum which was established that year. 
We do not know from where or how old 
he was when he came. Raleigh was estab- 
lished as the Capital of North Carolina in 
1792. Construction of the first State House 
was begun the same year and completed 
in 1796. Marling is best known for his 
painting of the State House, but like so 
many artists of that period, he had more 
than one profession in order to make his 
living. The Museum, of which Marling 
was director, added a reading room in 
1818 and advertised in the Raleigh Register — 
establishment is now open for the reception 
of visitors. Admittance, 25c. Ticket for the 
year, $5.00. As the plan embraces a Read- 
ing Room where most of the principal 
newspapers, literary works, reviews, etc. 
are filed. It is confidently believed that it 
will afford an agreeable and useful place 
of resort. Natural and artificial curiosities 
sketches, maps, drawings and paintings, 
rare coins and books will be thankfully 
received and added to the collection, with 
the name of the liberal donor appended 
to them. General Calvin Jones has oblig- 
ingly transferred the whole of his collection 
to this institution. J. Marling." 1 General 
Calvin Jones owned a very large plantation 
upon which now stands the town of Wake 
Forest. His collection, along with the other 
collections at the North Carolina Museum, 

1 Raleigh Register, October 2, 1818. 

2 1819, Register's Book 3, Wake County, p. 403. 

were later transferred to the University of 
North Carolina. The preceding notice 
appeared in the Raleigh Register for several 
years. The Museum contained paintings 
by older artists as well as some select 
works by the director himself. 

Marling's museum, or the North Caro- 
lina Museum, was moved from its original 
place and eventually situated at a point 
on Fayetteville Street which is now occu- 
pied by the Security National Bank. 
Marling, in negotiation with John Marshall 
and Joel Brown, acquired the lot and 
property on January 4, 1819. "For and in 
consideration of the sum of $1,750 to them 
in hand paid by the said Jacob Marling 
and Co. at and before the sealing and 
signing of these present ... a lot situated 
and being in the city of Raleigh, bounded 
as follows — beginning at the southwest 
corner of lot 114 Martin and Fayetteville 
Streets intersect — north along Fayetteville, 
35 feet; east, 80 feet; south, 35 feet; west, 
80 feet (a part of lot 114)." 2 

Marling apparently made many negotia- 
tions and deals and was not always wise 
in monetary matters, for in 1824 his 
property was put up for sale at auction in 
lieu of taxes. At the same time the lot 
next to Marling's property, owned by Miss 
Susan Schaub, was also up for sale in lieu 
of taxes. Susan Schaub operated a public- 
bath house, and according to her adver- 
tisement of June 13, 1825 — "She has avail- 
able warm and cold baths, informs her 
old customers and public generally that 
her bathing establishment is now in opera- 
tion and open for visitors. Regular bathing 



days are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, 
but if two hours notice be given, warm 
baths can be had any time." 3 She also 
had rooms for rent to transients and short- 
time residents. 

After Marling's difficulty with his 
Fayetteville Street property, he took rooms 
with John Goneke, whose establishment 
contained a concert hall, a theatre, a 
reading room, a liquor shop in which one 
was able to purchase 27 different kinds of 
liquor, a musical instrument shop, rooms 
for members of the legislature and various 
other conveniences for the comfort and 
entertainment of the citizenry and guests 
of the city. Judging from other references 
to Marling's gregarious character, he must 
have found Goneke's establishment much 
more to his liking than his own, for it is 
recorded that Marling and his friends 
often entertained themselves at cards until 
very early in the morning. It seems that 
Marling was often on the losing end of 
these games and would slip out around 
two A.M. saying that Mrs. Marling would 
be waiting dinner. 

After Marling had established himself at 
Goneke's, he published the following notice 
PAINTINGS. Ladies and gentlemen who 
may wish their portrait or miniature taken 
shall have them well executed, on moderate 
terms. Those who wish to see examples of 
his paintings can see a variety of pieces 
at Mr. Goneke's concert hall." 4 

Louisa Marling, wife of Jacob, was 
teaching in the Raleigh Academy in 1824. 

3 Raleigh Register and N. C. Gazette, June 13, 1825. 

4 Raleigh Register, November 12, 1824. 

Charles L. Coon, North Carolina Schools and Academies, 
1798-1840, xiv. 

6 Raleigh Register, June 9, 1820. 

The Raleigh Academy, which was estab- 
lished in 1800, had had several art teachers. 
In 1 808 T. Sambourne and wife came from 
Philadelphia and taught music, drawing 
and painting (which they had studied in 
England).'' Under the Rev. Mr. McPeters 
a number of courses were available besides 
courses in Latin and Greek, mathematics, 
natural philosophy, astronomy, rhetoric, 
logic, moral philosophy, and chemistry; 
drawing, painting and embroidery were 
offered for $15 additional tuition. The 
courses and quality of instruction com- 
pared favorably with the well-established 
Fayetteville Academy, Warrenton Female 
Academy and the Oxford Academy, al- 
though tuition rates in Raleigh were 
slightly higher. In addition to Mrs. Mar- 
ling's classes at the Academy, credit was 
given to students who studied painting 
with her individually. In June 1820 the 
following announcement appeared: "The 
following young ladies, pupils of Mrs. 
Marling, to wit. — Catherine Clark, Mary- 
Ann Clark, Adeline Allison, Margaret 
Allison, Eliza Lane, Martha Branch, Ann 
Fort, Rebecca Branch, and Julie Sanders, 
exhibited a great variety of flowers in pots 
and grapes, executed with a great deal of 
taste and beauty. ... A landscape by Miss 
Ann Fort is entitled to particular distinc- 
tion. Miss Sanders is a promising young 
artist." 6 

In 1820 Mrs. Marling submitted the 
following notice: "Mrs. Marling, grateful 
for the patronage she has received as a 
teacher of drawing and painting, solicits a 
continuance of that patronage of which 
she flatters herself, she will be found 
deserving particularly as Mr. Marling will 

in the future assist her in the tuition or 
her pupils." 7 

The Marlings were by no means the 
only artists in Raleigh in the 1820's. In 
December 1825 the following advertisement 
James McGibbon takes the liberty to 
inform the ladies and gentlemen of Raleigh 
and its vicinity, that his painting room is 
at Miss Susan Schaub's, Fayetteville St., 
where specimens of his execution may be 
seen and orders executed on the most 
reasonable terms." 8 A Mr. Jefferson, who 
had just completed the sets and decoration 
for the New Raleigh Theatre, lived in the 
city for a while. The Raleigh Star stated 
that he was the most eminent in his pro- 
fession in this country and that his work 
was unrivaled in splendor and tasty exe- 
cution. Most of the known artists in this 
section of the country at this time were 
itinerant, and Jacob Marling seems to be 
the only one who took up permanent 

From 1825 there seems to have been a 
great up-surge of interest in art in Raleigh. 
Marling was successful in his painting; he 
received many commissions and executed 
a number of portraits of members of the 
legislature. Cultural activity revolved 
around J. F. Goneke's concert hall, and 
the addition of Mr. Richard's day and 
night dancing school in the long room made 
it even more lively. 

The newspapers, The Star, The Raleigh 
Register and The Halter, carried regular art 
articles. On May 27, 1825, there appeared 

7 Star, June 2, 1820. 

8 Raleigh Register and N. C. Gazette, December 15, 1825. 

9 Raleigh Register and N. C. Gazette, May 27, 1825. 

10 Raleigh Register and N. C. Gazette, November 8, 1825. 

11 Raleigh Register and N. C. Gazette, November 23, 

in the press a notice that the large equestrian 
portrait of Washington by Rembrandt 
Pealc was in the Baltimore Museum 
preparatory to its transmission to the 
Capitol in Washington. 9 There was refer- 
ence to the large standing portrait of 
Washington by Thomas Sully in our own 
Capitol and the marble portrait of Washing- 
ton by Antonio Canova which was placed 
in the rotunda of the Capitol and, above 
all, elaborate descriptions of Lafayette's 
visit to Raleigh. The state went to great 
expense to celebrate the occasion of his 
visit and the whole city was in topnotch 
condition to receive him. 10 Even the local 
press suspended publication so that every- 
one could attend the festivities. Goneke 
inserted the advertisement announcing that 
"in addition to a large and general assort- 
ment of confectionary, cordial, wines, etc. 
with articles previously in store, forms the 
most complete establishment of the kind 
ever erected in this place. Also has re- 
ceived and will keep constantly on hand, 
a variety of musical instruments and a 
large quantity of the latest and most 
fashionable music. Rooms for parties, 23 
kinds of alcoholic drinks, candy, con- 
fections, toys, playing cards, nine musical 
instruments and parts." 11 

It was about this time that Marling did 
his best known painting, a landscape of 
the North Carolina State House after its 
restoration showing the added porticos. 
. . . "Marlin [sic], a portrait painter of 
Raleigh in the 1820's, painted an excellent 
picture of the State House after its reno- 
vations in 1820. He shows the fireproof 
building erected by Edmund Lane in 1819 
as a one-story [sic] house whose front door 
was evidently a few feet north of the present 


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bronze stature [sic] of George Washington 
just south of the Fayetteville Street entrance 
to the State House." 12 The remodeling 
program started around 1818 and was not 
entirely completed until 1825. The painting, 
like most of Marling's works, is coloristically 
very fine. The scene is painted from a 
point where Christ Church now stands 
and shows early morning sunlight falling 
on the building. Originally built in the 
1790's, it was a two-story undecorated red 
brick rectangular building with a simple 
hip roof and a third story attic indicated. 
Because the structure was unsound and 
because of the addition of the Canova 
statue and other works of art, the building 
was remodeled in the early '20's. A portico 
with pilaster columns running from the 
first floor to the second floor were added 
to the east and west facades. A dome was 
added over the center of the building and 
this was capped with a small Greco- 
Roman temple-like structure. The porticos 
rest upon a gray stone base which continues 
from the ground to the beginning of the 
second floor. The restoration of the Capitol 
added stucco of an earth-yellow color 
to the existing old section of the building. 
The small building to the left of the 
Capitol in Marling's painting (Fig. 1) is 
the governor's office. The other buildings 
are on Fayetteville Street and, as one can 
see, they are handsomely proportioned 
structures within garden walls. One can 
easily imagine that some of the figures in 
the painting are members of the legislature 
or other government officials; men and 
women coming and going, two young 
Negroes playing on the grass and another 

" Charles M. Heck, Comp., Documents of Early North 
Carolina and the Establishment of Raleigh as Its Capital 
(1952), Plate IX. 

Negro carrying a bundle upon her head. 
The trees around the Capitol seem to be 
rather young. The entire painting is well 
delineated and does not contain the brown 
and blackish tones often associated with 
regional paintings of this period. Although 
the painting is not signed, it is well docu- 
mented through records of ownership. 
Marling's portraits, as well as his land- 
scapes, depend greatly upon line. 

The portrait of John S. Haywod (Fig. 2) 
shows the subject as a young man. The 
painting is simple and direct in execution 
and again all areas are very expertly 
related in color. The painting, although 
a little light in treatment, is expertly com- 
posed. Again this portrait is unsigned but 
can be stylistically attributed without any 
doubt to Marling. 

Of the three portraits used in this article, 
the most interesting is probably the portrait 
of John Gray Blount (Fig. 4). This painting 
shows a man past middle age in a short 
waistcoat type of coat, a vest and a high 
collar. He holds in his left hand a bright blue 
book inscribed on the front "No. 4, Papers 
on Agriculture, 1829." Blount looks as if 
he has just finished reading from the papers, 
pushed his spectacles above his forehead 
and glanced toward the spectator. His hair 
is slightly longer than that of the fashion of 
the day and his right hand firmly clutches 
the arm of the chair. The modeling of the 
face is extremely well executed. The firm- 
ness of the treatment, the drawing of the 
chin and nose, is done with the skill of an 
expert artist. The relationship of colors in 
this painting brings it out of the category 
of genre and folk art and presents it as the 
work of a mature artist. 

The painting of W. A. Blount (Fig. 3) 


Fig. 4. Jacob Marling, John Gray Blount (1752-1833). Painted in 1829. Canvas, 40 x 33 inches. 
Blount Collection, Hall of History, Raleigh. 


is less successful than the one just described, 
but shows a wonderful feeling for arrange- 
ment and color. The costume, although 
black, is full of definite and crisp modeling. 
The chair, the same one that appears in 
the other portraits, is a sharp canary 

In these three portraits Marling has 
portrayed a young man, a middle-aged 
man and an old man, so well that one can 
almost guess their ages. 

We know Marling did portraits of 
women. A painting called "The May 
Queen" and other works by Marling were 
found in the possession of Mrs. Marling 
upon her death. Thus far I have been 
unable to locate any of the paintings of 
women. It is assumed that "The May 
Queen" portrait represents the May Queen 
of Mrs. Marling's school and must have 
been painted some time during or after 

In 1826 Mrs. Marling advertised— 
Mrs. Marling will teach drawing and 
painting on velvet, paper and satin at her 
usual terms of tuition to commence the 
first of January. N. B. Portrait and minia- 
ture painting by Jacob Marling." 13 

Descriptions of the May Day exercises 
were very elaborate and settings and 
decorations were described in full. The 
May Day exercises at the Raleigh Academy 
in 1826 included an exhibition of trans- 
parencies which were paintings on paper 
or gauze lighted from the back. These 
decorations were most likely painted by 
the Marlings. 

n Raleigh Register, December 22, 1826. 
'■' Raleigh Register, November 18, 1830. 
15 Raleigh Register, September 9, 1830. 

In addition to her private classes and 
duties at the Academy, Mrs. Marling 
attached herself to a millinery firm on a 
part-time basis. She probably worked for 
a Miss Henderson who for some reason 
had, according to advertisements, been 
trying to sell her establishment for several 

Marling's most prolific years were from 
1827 to 1831. He advertised— "POR- 
The subscriber will pay particular attention 
to those who may wish to encourage him 
in the above painting. Gentlemen in the 
legislature who may wish their portraits 
or miniatures painted will please call 
early. If they do so, the subscriber will 
ensure a good likeness and painting, 
having the whole session to execute the 
work. N. B. Ladies and gentlemen will 
please call at his residence where they 
can see a variety of paintings. J. Marling." 14 
Mrs. Marling also did well. She adver- 
Marling has commenced her school where 
she now resides and will give lessons on 
paper, velvet, satin, etc. Terms for drawing 
and painting on paper and on velvet, 
twenty lessons— $6.00." 15 

In 1831 Marling witnessed the burning 
of the old State House and realized that 
his painting remained the best documen- 
tary evidence of its existence and the only 
pictorial one. 

Marling died on December 18, 1833. 
His obituary read: "In this city on the 
18th instant after a long and painful illness. 
Mr. Jacob Marling, whose fine taste and 
skill as a portrait and landscape painter, 
are extensively known; aged about sixty 


years; leaving" a widow and numerous 
friends to lament his loss." 16 

Several years after Marling's death, a 
group of friends erected a tombstone to 
his memory. This monument was in evi- 
dence a few short years ago, but after 
looking carefully through the old Raleigh 
cemetery, I have not been able to find it. 

After her husband's death, Mrs. Marling 
took over a millinery business, and the 
only other reference to Mrs. Marling's 

10 Raleigh Register, December 24, 1833. 

professional activities I have been able to 
uncover is that she provided lamp shades 
for the newly installed chandeliers for the 
new State Capitol in the early 1840's. 
Mrs. Marling lived until after the Civil 
War and was active in the millinery business 
until old age forced her retirement. I have 
been unable to locate the paintings by- 
Marling which she had at the time of her 
death. Perhaps in some Raleigh attic or 
basement some of his crisply delineated 
works may yet be found. 





By J ames B. Byrnes 

It is the general practice for larger 
museums to restrict one-man exhibitions to 
artists who enjoy international fame and 
reputation; however, each institution has 
the obligation to set aside the rules occasion- 
ally where an important younger artist is 
concerned, particularly when he is teaching 
and living in the region. Therefore, this 
museum was pleased to present as its first 
one-man exhibition the paintings of Enrique 
Montenegro, an artist who has achieved 
some recognition and who shows great 
promise for the future. 

Montenegro was born in Valparaiso, 
Chile, December 7, 1917. At the age of 
nineteen he travelled to the United States, 
where he earned his B.F.A. at the University 
of Florida in 1944. After graduating he was 
awarded a scholarship to the Arts Students' 
League in New York, and the following 
year he joined the faculty of the University 
of New Mexico, where he was an instructor 
in art for five years. In 1951 he moved to 
Colorado, where he taught at the Denver 
Art Museum; there he was accorded a 
one-man exhibition. In 1956 Montenegro 
was awarded the Catherwood Foundation, 
Scholarship which he used to travel in 
Europe. This past year he was on the Staff 
of the School of Design, North Carolina 
State College. 

In reviewing Montenegro's earlier ex- 
hibitions, critics described him as a 
"nonobjective" or "abstract expressionist" 
painter meaning that the source of his 
painting was not easily grasped through 

1 Reprinted and revised from the checklist of the 
exhibition, "Paintings by Enrique Montenegro," August 
8 to September 24, 1957. 

recognizable symbols. Unfortunately, the 
enormous interest in twentieth century art 
and the consequent need to write about it 
has inclined some writers to overdo t he- 
popular practice of assigning artists to 
schools or movements instead of concen- 
trating on the fundamental quality of an 
artist — that of creative originality. Thus, 
when an artist veers from the mainstream, 
in this case non-objective painting, partisans 
of one school or another regard his efforts 
as a trend. To the prejudiced abstractionist, 
any hint of recognizable subject theme 
becomes an abandonment of the cause of 
purity. Those who know little and sympa- 
thize less with the whole of modern art, 
immediately cry "I told you so," insisting 
that art is returning to sanity and so-called 
tradition. Thus, for these groups, this 
exhibition probably served as a bellwether, 
but for those who can go beyond the super- 
ficiality of mode and appearance there was 
to be found in Montenegro's work a 
genuine original expression summarizing 
his response to things felt or experienced. 

An artist of strong passion, Montenegro 
in his canvases of the past three or four 
years has permitted the subject to emerge 
through more descriptive forms — forms 
which he has not allowed to dominate his 
interest but has used as vehicles for ex- 
pressive purposes. 

As one toured the exhibition, one could 
see Montenegro's understanding of his 
heritage as an artist; the knowledge he 
gained as a teacher was evident in certain 
canvases, principally those of more recent 
time. Also, it became clear that the masters 


of the past whom Montenegro admires 
most are Goya, Hals, and El Greco, and 
of the present, Soutine, DeKooning, Pol- 
lock, and the late Mexican artist, Jose 
Clemente Orozco. It is easier to relate 
Montenegro to Orozco since both come 
from a herce passionate Spanish heritage 
nourished in the region of great Indian 
civilizations of the past. 

But there the analogy must end, for 
Orozco was frequently a regional artist 
concerned with large social themes and 
was prone to preach. In contrast, Monte- 
negro rarely uses grouped figures and 
where he does, each is invariably an indi- 
vidual separated from the other by a kind 
of lonesome aura, engaged in a personal 

Montenegro describes his work as enig- 
matic, suggesting that each canvas infers 
a subject but that the real meaning of the 
objects is never quite spelled out but must 
be sought in the undertones. In many of 
his canvases, one feels something of a 
catastrophic nature, as though the artist 
created each work with an anxious fury so 
as to release an intense inner pressure. His 
painting has been compared to the poetry 
of his Chilean countrywoman, the late 
Gabriela Mistral, whose prefatory remarks 
in a volume of her poetry began with these 
words: "God forgive me this bitter book, 
and may those who feel life to be sweet 
forgive me, too." 2 

As an example, the canvas titled "Chair" 
suggests an interior with a lightbulb and 
a chair-like form which on close scrutiny 
evokes the image of a headless mute figure. 
The sense of disquietude is increased in the 

2 Gabriela Mistral, Desolation, Instituto de los Espanos, 

choice of title in the canvas "Dark Appa- 
rition" (Fig. 1) in which a figure emerges 
with a haunting, spectral insistence, creating 
a sense of the hallucinatory not unlike the 
scream-like silence one finds in the work of 
the English contemporary, Francis Bacon. 
Two late canvases suggest a more lyrical 
state of mind — "Woman with Dog in 
Landscape" shows a calm, almost classic, 
seated female figure set in a bright, cheerful 
landscape with a dog rolling on its back 
expressing its joy of life through this simple 
act. The monumental frontal figure and the 
freedom of the dog, the sure outline quality 
of the drawing and crispness of the color, 
all combine to recall the work of Manet; 
yet, the abruptness of the deep-spaced 
landscape and the slashing application of 
pigment are unmistakably Montenegro's 
own. Of the same time is "Standing Figure" 
(Fig. 2), with its shimmering tonal quality 
reminiscent of Vermeer. A female figure 
stands beside a telephone which seems to 
be at gentle rest; with bands folded, she 
appears to await the inevitable ring bring- 
ing a message already known. 

In spite of the figurative and thematic 
quality of many of Montenegro's canvases, 
he cannot be considered a literary painter 
who chooses associational material with 
which to display a talent; instead, one 
finds that in each painting he adds the 
dimension of his personality: his reaction 
to the intensity of the creative act without 
too much regard for the clarity or obscurity 
of the subject itself. Yet, there is an over-all 
subject evident in his canvases; some may 
prefer to call it content rather than subject 
— it is the intense drama of love and hate, 
tenderness and tragedy, and their absolute 
inseparableness from life. 


Fig. 2. Enrique Montenegro (American contemporary), Standing Figure. 1957. Oil on canvas, 
48^2 x 45 inches. Lent by Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

Hans Brosamer (German, about 1500-about 1554), Portrait of a Gentleman. 
Panel, 18^8 x 12 inches. Exhibited, New York World's Fair, 1939. Gift of Mrs. 
Arthur Lehman, New York. 


A specially arranged exhibition by the Museum of some fifty paintings and sculp- 
tures. The core of this exhibition will be a number of works from the Museum's 
own collection; other items will be borrowed from public and private collections through- 
out the country. The exhibition will trace the mother and child theme in art through 
history, from its beginning to the present. From the Museum's own collection, paintings 
by Berlinghiero Berlinghieri, Guido Reni, Del Sarto, Cima, Rubens, and Van Dyck will 
be featured. A catalogue for the exhibition is contemplated. Opening dates to be announced. 

EXHIBITION." A special exhibition travelling under the auspices of the Olsen Founda- 
tion featuring the works of contemporary painters throughout the world. This exhibition 
made up of smaller canvases surveys the impact of abstract painting on the world today. 
IThis show will open in the Museum and will be available for a limited number of bookings 
to other art centers and colleges throughout the state without charge. This is the first 
in a series of exhibitions offered by the Olsen Foundation which will be available from 
jtime to time on the same basis. 

iBITION." An annual exhibition sponsored by the North Carolina State Art Society 
iopen to native North Carolinians and to other artists who have lived in the state for the 
Itwelve months immediately preceding October 1957, or for a period of five years at some 
other time. The exhibition will be judged by a panel of experts invited from outside the 
state. One thousand dollars is made available in order to acquire some of the prize works 
through Art Society purchase. This exhibition will be previewed by those attending the 
annual Art Society meeting on December 4. 

An exhibition of paintings by the late Bradley Walker Tomlin (1899-1953), distinguished 
American contemporary artist. This exhibition is being shared with the University of 
California at Los Angeles. 

jDuring the fall and winter seasons, the Museum plans to present exhibitions of decorative 
sirts, contemporary design, and a few special lectures, the details for which will be an- 
nounced in the local press. 


The North Carolina State Art Society invites those interested in the promotion of art 
in North Carolina to become members of the Society. Membership is renewable each 
year on the anniversary of the date a member joins. 


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Officers and Board of Directors of the State Art Society 

Governor Luther H. Hodges Honorary President 

Mr. Robert Lee Humber President 

Mr. Edwin Gill Vice-President 

Mrs. James H. Cordon Treasurer 

Vice-Presidents at Large Elected 

Mrs. Frank Taylor Dr. Clarence Poe 

Mrs. Jacques Busbee Mrs. Isabelle Henderson 

Mr. John V. Allcott Dr. Clemens Sommer 

Mr. Egbert L. Davis, Jr. 

Appointed by the Governor Mr. Henry L. Bridges 

Dr. Sylvester Green Mr. Gregory Ivy 

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Mr. Ralph C. Price Mrs. Elizabeth Hamrick Mack 

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The North Carolina Museum of Art 




Permit No. 453 

North Carolina State Library 
Technical Service Division 
Box 2339 

Raleigh, N. C. 4 copies 



Volume I Winter 1957/ Spring 1958 Numbers 4 and 5 


Lodovico Carracci's Assumption of the Virgin 1 

By Minerva Pinnell 

Two Portraits of the Jacobean Period 8 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Critical Remarks on the Work of Agostino Cornacchini 13 

By Herbert Keutner 

A Visit to Possagno 23 

By Ben F. Williams 

Coptic Textiles 33 

By Adele Coulin Weibel 

Some Recent Accessions of Twentieth Century Painting 41 

By James B. Byrnes 

Cover: Lodovico Carracci (Italian, 1555-1619), Assumption of the Virgin. About 1588. 
Canvas, height 963^ inches, width 53 inches. Gift of Mrs. J. L. Dorminy, Raleigh, in 
memory of her husband. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin is published quarterly. Copyright, 1957, by the North Carolina Museum 
of Art, 107 East Morgan Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Subscriptions $1.00 a year. Single copies $.25. Sent free 
to North Carolina State Art Society members. Four weeks' notice required for change of address. 


By Minerva Pinnell 

One of the most impressive examples of 
early Baroque painting in this country is 
the altarpiece by the Bolognese master, 
Lodovico Carracci (1555-1619), of the 
"Assumption of the Virgin," a gift of Mrs. 
J. L. Dorminy to the North Carolina Mu- 
seum of Art at Raleigh.* The monumental 
painting, measuring 963^ by 53 inches, was 
formerly in the collection of the Marquis 
of Abercorn, whose mark is imprinted on 
the stretcher. It is an important work, 
representative of the artist's style in his 
early maturity. In addition, it is notable 
in its revelation of a new interpretation of 
religious imagery influenced by ecclesi- 
astical authorities of the Roman Catholic 
Church after the Tridentine controversy 
concluded in 1563. 

Lodovico Carracci and his two cousins, 
Agostino (1557-1602) and Annibale Car- 
racci (1560-1609), founded their academy 
of painting, the Accademia degli Incamminati, 
at Bologna in 1585-86. In their teaching 
they advocated a return to direct study of 
nature and through their forceful influence 
were instrumental in setting up reaction 
against the abstract tendencies predomi- 
nant in European art after 1520. It is 
from this crucial period of transformation 
that Lodovico's altarpiece of the "Assump- 
tion of the Virgin" comes, occupying a 
pivotal position between the old and the 

The Carracci treated the theme of the 
"Assumption of the Virgin" repeatedly, 
and their contributions established proto- 

* See cover, 

types to which reference was made by 
many artists in the succeeding centuries. 
Following the Council of Trent renewed 
interest in the cult of the Virgin arose and 
such impetus brought about increased 
attention to the subject which was repre- 
sentative of supreme glorification of the 
Mother of God. Interpretations by the 
Carracci betray strong influence from 
churchmen who clarified the position of 
the Church relative to the function of art 
as an object of edification instead of as 
merely a decorative accessory. In the 
latter part of the sixteenth century the 
bond between painting and religion became 
more firmly secured than had been the 
case since the Middle Ages. 

The Bolognese school continued the 
iconographic juxtaposition of the scene of 
the apostles' discovery of the empty tomb 
of the Virgin and that of her triumphal 
transportation into the celestial realm. A 
great variety of expressive sentiment is 
found, particularly in the painting of 
Lodovico and Annibale Carracci. In the 
comparison between Lodovico's altarpiece 
at Raleigh and Annibale's version of 1587 
for the church of San Rocco at Reggio 
Emilia, now in Dresden, a more didactic 
quality is discernible in the former painting. 
Likewise, Lodovico's handling of the theme 
in 1601 for the church of Corpus Domini at 
Bologna and his further modification of it 
in the interest of even greater moralistic 
concentration in his painting of 1605-08 
for the cathedral at Piacenza, now in the 
Pinacoteca at Modena, point to divergent 
attitudes between the two artists, Annibale 

Detail: Lodovico Carracci, Assumption of the Virgin (see 
J. L. Dorminy, Raleigh, in memory of her husband. 


gives increased attention to the dramatic 
impact of the incident, especially apparent 
in his great altarpiece of 1601 for the Cerasi 
chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo at Rome, 
whereas Lodovico seeks to impart to the 
onlooker depth of spiritual significance 
inherent in the "Assumption of the Virgin." 

In the Raleigh altarpiece the scene of 
the discovery of the empty tomb by the 
apostles is clearly separated from that of 
the miraculous assumption of the Madonna 
amid a host of heavenly cherubs and music- 
making angels who accompany her in her 
glorious assent. On either side of the gaping 
hollow of the rectangular tomb eleven 
apostles are grouped. Several look search- 
ingly into the tomb itself, while others 
gaze intently at the vision of the Virgin 
above them. One of their number shields 
his face with his hand as protection against 
the effulgent glow emanating from the 
heavenly vision. The apostle John alone 
turns his head to look directly at the spec- 

The upper and lower sections of the 
painting are less disparate than appears at 
first glance, as they are unified principally 
by means of the attitudes of the figures 
and the development of an expansive spiral 
rhythm which is initiated in the group of 
the apostles and rises in a full sweep to 
culminate in the soaring figure of the 
Madonna. The directional movement cre- 
ated by the upturned faces and glances of 
the apostles tends to establish the spatial 
position of the Virgin directly above the 
group instead of well in the background. 
In observation of comparative scale her 
location in space seems to be behind them. 
However, Lodovico's characteristic use of 

1 J.-P. Migne, Theologiae. Cursus Completus (Paris, 1866) 
Vol. 17, col. 250: Lib. Ill, Cap. XXXII. 

brilliant color in garments worn by figures 
in the middle ground and of clear intense 
tones in the sky areas carries those forms 
toward the foreground by virtue of the 
aggressive nature of color intensity. The 
artist increases the emotional impact of 
the scene upon the spectator partially by 
means of his manipulation of color. Such 
an interpretation of movement and light is 
vitally important in the development of the 
full Baroque style of the seventeenth cen- 

Prominent in the immediate foreground 
at the left, St. Thomas kneels on the slab 
of stone which has been removed from the 
tomb, his rapt gaze fixed on the Virgin. 
He gestures toward the empty tomb with 
his left hand, holding in his right the end of 
the pure white girdle which, according to 
the thirteenth century account in Jacobus 
da Voragine's Golden Legend, fell unopened 
into his hands that his doubt concerning 
the miraculous assumption might be dis- 
pelled. St. Thomas wears the girdle instead 
of merely holding it, as shown in traditional 
renderings of the scene. This iconographic 
variant is introduced by Lodovico possibly 
in response to directions outlined by 
Joannes Molanus in his De Historia Sacrarum 
Imaginnm et Picturarum, first published in 
1570. Molanus instructs that for the Festival 
of the Assumption of the Virgin in mid- 
August portrayal of the "Assumption" 
should accord special attention to St. 
Thomas in order to inspire piety and de- 
votion within the whole populace. 1 

Behind the kneeling figure of St. Thomas 
stands St. Peter with an open book in his 
hand, reminiscent of Voragine's account. 
It was to Peter that leadership in conduct- 
ing the obsequies in honor of the Virgin 
was assigned. On the opposite side of the 


grave, St. Paul steps impetuously forward 
(see detail), inclining his head toward the 
kneeling St. Thomas and pointing em- 
phatically with a great sweeping gesture 
toward a huge marble sarcophagus in the 
right middle ground. 

Placement of St. Peter on the left and 
St. Paul on the right may be considered a 
purposeful choice in order to convey 
symbolically the differentiation between the 
two apostles, explained by Molanus. The 
position of left was bestowed upon Peter, 
bearing the significance of the active or 
temporal life, and that of right upon Paul, 
emblematic of the contemplative or celestial 
life. The relationship between the two 
disciples of Christ in their earthly mission 
as ministers of the gospel is clarified through 
association with the marble monuments 
behind them. Behind the group of which 
Paul is a part stands a Jewish tomb, identi- 
fied by the relief of the Mosaic tablets of 
the Law. Pendent to it is a Roman-type 
tomb placed behind Peter on the left. 

Visible in the center of the composi- 
tion and silhouetted against the pano- 
rama of the valley of Gethsemane in 
the distance is an obelisk on which are 
astrological hieroglyphs. This motif assumes 
primary importance in the figural com- 
position, placed in coincidence with St. 
John's upraised right hand. It is also 
closely associated with the broad arc of 
the golden palm branch held in his left 
hand. Within the pictorial organization St. 
John's highly expressive gesture is the focal 
center of the perspective system, all con- 
structional lines formed by the open tomb 
of the Virgin and the two marble sarco- 
phagi merging in the form of his right 
hand. The cluster of objects is thus inti- 
mately related, in spite of their spatial loca- 

tion within areas widely separated. Standing 
with his bare feet at the very edge of the 
open tomb, the figure of St. John is in the 
foreground immediately behind St. Paul. 
The obelisk is placed in the far middle 
ground, its base partially concealed by 
several broken fragments of architectural 
elements lying on the ground. Attention 
is called to the interrelationship between 
all these motifs by St. John's compelling 
glance. His attitude concentrates interest 
not only upon their formal integration 
through movement but, more significantly, 
also upon the symbolic meaning of them 
in reference to the Virgin. 

According to the Golden Legend the 
beloved apostle John carried the branch of 
the palm of Paradise, given to Mary by 
the heavenly messenger who came to her 
before her death and bade her have it 
carried before her bier. She entrusted it 
to John, the first of the apostles to arrive 
at her bedside. Since antiquity the motif 
of the palm branch had signified triumph. 
Similarly, the Egyptian obelisk is under- 
stood as emblematic of supreme homage 
bestowed upon princes, symbolic of both 
earthly victory and spiritual glorification. 
Voragine's record of St. Peter's intonation 
of the psalm in honor of the Virgin: Exiit 
de Aegypto, Alleluia! and the bearing of the 
sacred palm by St. John is supplemented 
by the authority of Pierio Valeriano in 
whose Hieroglyphica the symbolic signifi- 
cance of the obelisk is defined. Published 
in 1556 and republished in numerous 
editions until the 1620's, Valeriano's ency- 
clopedic emblem book provided a wealth 
of pictorial imagery for artists in the late 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 
discussing the meaning of the obelisk, 
Valeriano points out that of all objects 


none implied the eminence of royal dignity 
contained in that image. 

Lodovico Carracci's inclusion of the 
motif of the Egyptian obelisk in the repre- 
sentation of the "Assumption of the Virgin" 
is an iconographic innovation in early 
Baroque painting. It had been incorporated 
previously in scenes from the life of the 
Virgin, notably in Venetian painting, by 
Titian in his "Presentation of the Virgin" of 
1534-38 and by Tintoretto in his remarkable 
portrayal of the same subject, completed 
in 1556, in the church of Santa Maria 
dell'Orto at Venice. Interest in Egyptian 
monuments and in the meaning of ancient 
hieroglyphs is traceable to the High Renais- 
sance. Such publications as the anonymous 
Hypnerotomachia Pcliphili by the Aldine 
Press in 1499 and the Horapollo Hiero- 
glyphica in 1505 aroused curiosity in them. 
Contemporary with Lodovico's painting, 
Pope Sixtus V Peretti was instrumental in 
the spectacular erection of the great obelisk 
in front of St. Peter's at Rome (1585-86). 
Of even greater significance than the 
sensational technological achievement of 
dismantling, transporting and re-erecting 
the monument, the only obelisk which 
stood upright in Nero's Circus, was the 
new artistic meaning bestowed upon it by 
the Pope. The obelisk was symbolic repre- 
sentation of divine union embodied in the 
rays of the sun, emblem of the triumph of 
Christ. No more appropriate object could 
be included in the scene of the glorification 
of the Virgin than that symbolic of her 
Son's resurrection and assumption. 

Stylistically Lodovico's altarpiece reveals 
reminiscence of the Venetian school, espe- 
cially of Tintoretto in the orchestration of 
the dark and light pattern. The Bolognese 
painter always used patterns of value to 

achieve striking pictorial effects rather than 
for determining the massive quality of 
three-dimensional form. Such handling is 
in contrast to Annibale's sense of solidity. 
The breadth of rhythmic interplay in the 
figural organization recalls Titian although 
the expansive surge of the open spiral 
increases the sensation of freedom in 
movement and is quite different from the 
compactness in Titian's solution in his 
famous altarpiece of the "Assumption of 
the Virgin" for the church of the Frari in 

Lodovico retains the typical Mannerist 
repoussoir figure in the placement of the 
figure of St. Paul, integrating the form 
into the group in a manner similar to 
Tintoretto's manipulation. The method is 
quite close to that employed by the Bolog- 
nese Mannerists, Pellegrino Tibaldi and 
Sammacchini. However, Mannerist exag- 
geration of posture and gesture, prevalent 
in Italian painting prior to 1580, is sharply 
modified and controlled to project content 
of a decidedly moralistic tone. The figures 
seem to conform to a pre-established 
authority, acting with almost self-conscious 

Such an abrupt change from Mannerist 
artificiality to monumental dignity may 
have been influenced by the writings of the 
Bolognese archbishop, Cardinal Gabriele 
Paleotti, whose treatise Discorso intorno alle 
imagine sacre e profane appeared at Bolonga 
in 1582. Lodovico gives evidence of striving 
to comply with the churchman's instruc- 
tions. There is marked sympathy between 
the expressive quality of the rhetorical 
gestures in the "Assumption of the Virgin" 
and the instructions presented by Paleotti 
as he expounds reform in religious painting: 
the primary purpose [of religious painting] 


should be to instruct and to edify, "a book 
for the populace . . . with images which 
breathe piety, modesty, sanctity, devotion 
. . . and penetrate into us with greater 
force than words." 

Although the Raleigh "Assumption" is 
not securely dated, 2 a probable date may 
be assigned by comparing it with two 
paintings by Lodovico which are clearly 
established in the chronology of the master's 
work. The first is the monumental altar- 
piece, signed and dated 1588, a commission 
from the Bargellini family, of the "Madonna 
and Child Enthroned with SS. Francis, 
Dominic, Martha and Magdalene," now 
in the Pinacoteca at Bologna. The second is 
the altarpiece of the "Conversion of St. 
Paul," ordered by the Zambeccari for their 
family chapel in the church of S. Francesco 
at Bologna and datable on documentary 
evidence between July 18, 1587, and May 
15, 1589, now also in the Pinacoteca. 

In the Bargellini altarpiece is the same 
configuration of an open and expansive 
spiral which is developed in the "Assump- 
tion," the same restrained yet eloquent 
gestures, and the same grave facial types 
expressing profound emotional intensity. 
However, in the Bargellini painting the 
figures act more naturally. They appear 
subjected to less rigid discipline than that 
which governs the activity of the figures in 
the "Assumption." On the basis of com- 
parison, the Raleigh "Assumption" may, 
therefore, be placed prior to the Bargellini 
"Madonna and Child" of 1588. 

In sharp contrast to both the Raleigh 
painting and the Bargellini altarpiece the 
wildly agitated contortions of the figures 

2 Dr. Cesare Gnudi, Director of the Pinacoteca at 
Bologna, is of the opinion that the Raleigh "Assump- 
tion" is a work of the years between 1595 and 1605. 
Letter of July 29, 1957, to W. R. Valentiner. 

in the Zambeccari "Conversion of St. 
Paul" create a highly intricate linear 
rhythm. There is startling ambiguity of 
space relationships, giving evidence of 
continuation of late Mannerist tendencies. 
These features were pronounced in Lodo- 
vico's own fresco work of 1584 in the Palazzo 
Fava at Bologna, a commission in which 
both Agostino and Annibale participated. 
The explosive spirit of the "Conversion" 
suggests contact with Parmigianino's paint- 
ing of the same subject and the sensation- 
alism present in the art of the Florentine 
Mannerists. In the Raleigh "Assumption" 
Lodovico shows conscious effort to eradi- 
cate such features. He exhibits a desire to 
bring about a complete change in his 
artistic expression. He transforms the char- 
acter of his painting by means of a starkly 
simple organization of linear rhythms and 
the introduction of stately gestures. The 
composition itself is strongly reminiscent 
of the strict formality typical of High 
Renaissance painting. Within it is fused the 
dynamic movement of the developing 
Baroque style. 

An inferior replica of the Raleigh 
"Assumption" is housed in the Pinacoteca 
at Bologna. Acquired in 1882, the painting" 
was formerly a part of the Zambeccari 
collection. Upon the basis of internal 
evidence it may be conjectured that, owing 
to the difference in the conception of the 
two paintings of the "Assumption of the 
Virgin" and the "Conversion of St. Paul," 
the former painting was rejected by the 
Zambeccari because of its divergence from 
prevailing Mannerist sentiment. It was, 
however, retained by the family and the 
artist prepared another altarpiece, the 
painting now in Raleigh, for a more 
appreciative patron. In his interpretation 


Lodovico pointed the way to the High 
Baroque of the seventeenth century. 

In his religious painting of the 1590's 
Lodovico Carracci produced great altar- 
pieces. The dramatic power of his fully 
mature painting, exemplified in the "Trans- 
figuration" and the "Crowning with 
Thorns" of 1595, exerted marked influence 
in the formation of the artistic progeny of 
the Carracci Academy in whom the High 
Baroque style was to be realized. 


Heinrich Bodmer's monograph on Lodo- 
vico Carracci, published in 1939 (Burg bei 
Magdeburg), gives further information con- 
cerning his life and work, as well as illustra- 
tions of those paintings referred to above. 
Valuable information is also contained in 
the following publications: 

Adolfo Venturi, Storia dell ''Arte Italiana 
(Milan, 1934), Vol. IX, Part VII, 
pp. 1161-1183. 

Rudolph Wittkower, The Drawings of the 
Carracci in the Collection of Her Ala je sty 
the Qiieen at Windsor Castle (London, 

Cesare Gnudi, Mostra dei Carracci (Bo- 
logna, 1956), pp. 17-47. 

Walter J. Friedlaender, Mannerism and 
Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting (New 
York, 1957). 

Denis Mahon, "Afterthoughts on the 
Carracci Exhibition" in Gazette des 
Beaux Arts, XLIX (1957), pp. 193- 
207, 267-298. 

Dr. Pinnell is Assistant Professor of Art, 
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 


Sato Library 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Some time ago there appeared in the 
News and Observer (Raleigh) a letter to the 
editor in which the writer complained that 
this institution has too many portraits of 
members of the aristocracy for a museum of 
a democratic community and nation. All 
the paintings mentioned belong to the 
English eighteenth and early nineteenth 
century schools, which, it is true, are well 
represented in our collection; this they 
deserve from a general art historical point 
of view as well as from the fact that here 
in the South the English tradition is still 

The main field of early English art is 
portraiture, and as the court and the aris- 
tocrats related to it were the greatest 
patrons of art — as a matter of fact, not 
only in England but also in France— 
nearly all portraitists of this period devoted 
their art to the representatives of the upper 

If the writer of this criticism would 
study the art of other countries which is 
equally well represented in our Museum, 
he would find that in American, Dutch, 
Flemish, and German art the bourgeoisie 
is depicted in as many portraits exhibited as 
is the aristocracy in the English and French 
sections; that is the case in countries which 
were ruled by democratic governments and 
where art was patronized mainly by the 
middle classes. Such is the course of history 
which we try to explain through our 
collections, regardless of any prejudices 
one way or the other. 

1 Described and illustrated on pages 55 and 56. 

We now are able to announce the acqui- 
sition of two more early portraits of the 
English aristocracy of the Jacobean age. 
We should immediately mention that at 
the same time there have been added three 
Dutch seventeenth century portraits which 
show types of the Dutch bourgeoisie at the 
period when their democratic system had 
emerged from the Dutch-Spanish war in 
the seventeenth century. They are: two 
single portraits by Govaert Flinck of the 
artist and his wife and a small group 
portrait showing a family of eleven members 
by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout. 1 

The two English portraits, one a gift of 
Governor Hodges, the other an acquisition 
through state funds, belong to the period 
of James I (1603-1625), the successor of 
Queen Elizabeth, that is, to an epoch 
which was the golden age of English poetry. 
(Our portraits are dated 1619, three years 
after the death of William Shakespeare.) 
The portraits of the Elizabethan and Jaco- 
bean time, long neglected in our museums, 
as they seemed retardatory compared to 
the general European trend of the period, 
have been rediscovered in recent years and 
are now so much in the center of interest 
among students that they almost over- 
shadow those of the great age of English 
portraiture of the eighteenth century. 

The artistic culture of the Elizabethan 
and Post-Elizabethan period was, indeed, so 
original and deeply rooted in England that 
even artists who came from the continent 
in their effort to supply the great demand 
for elegant court portraits soon succumbed 
to the peculiar English style. This also 


happened to Paul van Somer, an artist of 
Flemish origin who stayed in England only 
five years, but who shows the English influ- 
ence in his pleasure for costume painting 
and in a flat and consciously primitive con- 
ception. In the short time he lived in Eng- 
land, from 1616 to 1621, he, together with 
Daniel Mytens, became the most important 
predecessor of Van Dyck. An early death 
saved him from the decline in reputation 
which threatened Mytens, who after a long 
hesitation found it more appropriate to 
avoid competition with the incomparable 
Van Dyck and to return to the continent. 

Paul van Somer was born in Antwerp 
about 1576 and went to Holland at an 
early age, probably with the Protestant 
refugees who left Flanders on account of 
the persecutions of the Duke of Alba. In 
1604 he was settled in Amsterdam, as we 
learn from the first edition of Van Mander, 
of this year; later he lived in Leiden for 
several years (1612-14) and for a shorter 
period in The Hague (161 5). 2 

We know little of his Flemish and Dutch 
period, but as he is mentioned in a number 
of English documents beginning in the year 
1616, a good many paintings in English 
collections have been attributed to him. As 
a result of the studies of E. Waterhouse, this 
number has been reduced to a very small 
one, as many of those works attributed to 
him belonged to a period when the artist 
was still on the continent. 3 The most out- 
standing ones of those which are rightly 

2 As Van Mander's book came out in 1604, Van 
Somer must have been at Amsterdam some time before 
this date. The notes of Van Mander on Paul van Somer 
have been reprinted in his edition of 1618, although 
Van Somer had left Holland by this time. 

3 Ellis K. Waterhouse, Painting in Britain 7530-7790 
(Baltimore, Penguin, 1953), pp. 33 and 34. 

4 Reproduced C. H. Collins Baker, Lely and the Stuart 
Portrait Painters (London, Philip Lee Warner, 1912), 
I, 30. 

given to Van Somer are the 1617 portrait 
of Anne of Denmark, the wife of James I, 
at Windsor and another of 1619 at Hamp- 
ton Court Palace. Those nearest to the 
pair in the North Carolina Museum of 
Art are the four portraits of Elizabeth 
Countess of Exeter, and her three daughters, 
in the possession of the Marquess of Ailes- 
bury (1618), and a portrait of Lady Apsley 
and her son in Cirencester House (ca. 
1619). 4 

Our portraits, signed and dated 1619, 
come from the same collection of the 
Marquess of Ailesbury and are described 
in Waterhouse's chapter on the artist. They 
represent the Second Earl of Devonshire 
with his son, and his wife the Countess of 
Devonshire with her daughter. Besides the 
signature and the date of the artist, the 
portraits have inscriptions which read as 
follows: "William Lord Cavendish, Earle 
of Devonshire husband to Christian Bruce 
Countess of Devonshire, his son William 
Lord Cavendish after Earle of Devonshire 
he has in his hand." In the upper right 
corner of the painting the age of the Earl is 
given as twenty-nine; in the lower left is 
given the age of the son, which it is im- 
possible to decipher. 

The companion piece has the following 
inscription: "Christian Countess of Devon- 
shire wife to William Earle of Devonshire 
having in her hand her daughter and Lady 
Rich, and then with child of Coll: Charles 
Cavendish slaine at Gainsborowe in his 
Ma:tis sarvis." The age of the subject is 
given as twenty-two years and five months, 
and that of her daughter as six years and 
ten months, which means that the Countess 
Christian married at the age of sixteen, an 
age not unusual for marriage at this period. 

The inscription referring to the Duchess 


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is somewhat difficult to explain; it means, 
obviously, that the girl next to her is the 
child of her first marriage with Charles 
Cavendish, the brother of her present hus- 
band, who was killed in the battle at Gains- 
borough in the service ("sarvis") of the 
king. Another portrait of William Lord 
Cavendish, who 'holds on his hand' the 
child from the second marriage of the 
Duchess, exists at Hardwick Hall; it was 
painted six years later by Daniel My tens. 5 
It is interesting to compare Paul van 
Somer's paintings with those of some of 
his contemporaries on the continent, so as 
to become aware of the difference in style 
between the continental conception and 
that which Van Somer adopted in his Eng- 
lish period. We take as an example a little- 
known portrait by Cornells van der Voort 
in the Norfolk, Virginia, Museum, a gift 
of Emil Wolfe of New York, which was 
painted at about the same time (Van der 
Voort died in 1624). The artist had a career 
similar to that of Paul van Somer, inasmuch 
as he was born in Antwerp in the same year 
(1576), emigrated then to Holland, but 
stayed for the rest of his life at Amsterdam 
(Van Mander mentions him immediately 
after Van Somer). There he became one of 
the transitional masters who bridged the 
gap between Flemish style initiated by 
Rubens and that of the predecessors of Rem- 
brandt. Van der Voort followed the general 
tendency of Netherlandish portrait painting 
in stressing the volume of the figure in the 
baroque manner, developing the depth and 
working towards a strong modelling from 
light to dark. On the contrary, Van Somer 
preserves a more archaic linear pattern in 
which the features are clearly outlined and 

6 Reproduced in Collins-Baker, op. cit., I, 46. 

Cornelis van der Voort (Amsterdam, 1576- 
1624), Portrait of a Gentleman. Norfolk, Virginia, 

drawn without much modelling. The eyes 
and brows, for instance, are designed in a 
conventional manner with the light on the 
pupils always at the same spot. But more 
important are the effective, decorative 
colors of the costume: The gentleman in a 
deep shiny plum brocade costume, the 
child in white with blue girdle, the lady in 
a silvery dress with brown "fond," the girl 
in silver gray with pink sash. The flat, 
ornamental style characteristic of the cos- 
tume pieces of the Elizabethan period is 
still pronounced in Van Somer's paintings 
and differentiates them from the portrait 
of Van der Voort with its black costume, 
which is unobtrusive compared to the 
head and hands with their forceful model- 
ling, The connection with the Italian 


Renaissance, also evident in the English 
literature of the time, is more obvious in 
Van Somer's paintings than in the portraits 
of Van der Voort: The dresses of the adults 
and those of the children are made of 

colorful Italian brocade, and the mass of 
costly lace which covers the dresses of the 
lady and both children is of the rare 
Reticella type which was imported to Eng- 
land from Venice. 



By Herbert Keutner 

Before we attempt to fit the two angels 
with crucifixion tools (figures 1 and 2) in 
the North Carolina Musuem of Art 1 into 
the work of Agostino Cornacchini (born 
1685 in Pescia near Pistoia; died 1740 in 
Rome [?]) it seems advisable to begin with 
some remarks about the place of this artist 

1 Gifts of Mrs. Garland Tucker, Raleigh, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, Jr., of Raleigh; at one 
time in the collection of F. Macomber, Boston. Marble. 
Height of the Angel with the Column: 43 inches, height 
of the Angel with the Veil of Veronica: 42 inches. 

2 Except for a few isolated lexical mentionings and 
some short references, concerning the artist, there does 
not exist, up to this day, any essay in the Italian literature 
of guides or in more comprehensive art historical en- 
cyclopaedias dealing exclusively with Cornacchini. 
J. R. Fiissli (Allgemeines Kiinstlerlexikon. . . , Zurich, 
1779, p. 174), still unprejudiced, listed in this earliest 
survey only those works of the artist which were known 
to him. Leopoldo Cicognara, however, described 
Cornacchini mainly in view of his equestrian statue of 
Charlemagne, "uno dei piu tristi scultori che mai 
tratassero lo scarpello" {Storia della Scultura . . . , 2nd 
ed., Vol. 6 (1824), p. 236). This opinion was not only 
upheld all through the nineteenth century, but it is 
still detectable in Friedrich Noack's writing: "He 
[Cornacchini] displays in his work very great technical 
knowledge, but he is indulging in all the excesses of 
the taste of the Baroque" (Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines 
Lexikon der bild. Kunstler, Leipzig, Vol. VII, 1912, p. 419). 

3 Signs of a revised appreciation of his art during 
recent years we find, however, in isolated places, for 
instance in G. De Logu, La scultura Italiana del Seicento e 
del Settecento. Firenze, 1932, p. 67, or in A. Riccoboni, 
Roma dell 'Arte: La Scultura nell 'Evo moderno dal Quattro- 
cento ad oggi, Roma, 1942, p. 282 ft., with useful, though 
incomplete index of his work. 

4 We learn from the Vita written by his friend and 
patron F. M. Gaburri, which will be published in 
the next number of the Bulletin, that Cornacchini 
moved from Florence to Rome in 1712. 

6 Already his contemporaries considered Rusconi as 
a revolutionary in art; for instance Leone Pascoli in 
1730 in his Vita on the artist (Vite de' Pitlori . . . , Roma, 
1730, I, 262): "perche in esse (the Apostle sculptures 
in S. Giovanni in Laterano) risorta la correzione e la 
venerabilita degli antichi, e la vivezza, l'espressiva e 
la bizzaria de' moderni, vedea Roma rinato il morto 
gusto della scultura." 

in relation to the art of his time; even to 
this day one adheres to a general negative 
criticism, started by Canova's friend Leo- 
poldo Cicognara 2 of his art, a criticism 
which for us, contemporaries, should have 
lost its meaning long ago, since it is based 
on the critical attitude of Classicism towards 
all art of the Baroque. 3 

Cornacchini belongs to that group of 
sculptors, born during the last quarter of 
the seventeenth century, who had come to 
Rome from the numerous provinces of 
Italy, exercising a decisive influence on the 
development of sculpture in this place. His 
contribution to the many-colored facets of 
sculpture in Rome during the first half of 
the eighteenth century has passed un- 
noticed so far, a fact which is the more 
surprising since his work has made contri- 
butions of very definite, personal accents. 
In 1712 he moved from Florence to Rome, 
after having served his apprenticeshiD in 
the workshop of Giovanni Battista Foggini. 4 
It was Camillo Rusconi who at this time 
was active in Rome and was accepted as 
the most influential, uncontested master; 
in the growing classicistic tendencies of his 
creations he worked against the high ba- 
roque taste of Bernini's epoch. 5 During those 
years Rusconi created in collaboration with 
congenial sculptors, like Giuseppe Maz- 
zuoli, Pietro Le Gros the Younger, Pietro 
Stefano Monnot or Lorenzo Ottoni, the 
monumental series of Apostles, which were 


Fig. 1. Agostino Cornacchini (Italian, 1685-1740), Angel 
with Scourge Column, 1730-34. Marble, height 43 inches. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, Jr., Raleigh. 


Fig. 2. Agostino Cornacchini, Angel with the Veil of Veronica, 
1730-34. Marble, height 42 inches. Gift of Mrs. Garland S. 
Tucker, Raleigh. 


meant to be placed in the Basilica of S. Gio- 
vanni in Laterano. 6 

Young Cornacchini could not yet take 
part in this important undertaking; how- 
ever, in later commissions he worked side 
by side with Rusconi. 7 He obviously did 
not avoid collaboration, and he certainly 
did not consciously withdraw from Rus- 
coni's influence; yet he did not give himself 
up to his intimate artistic discipleship. To 
the contrary, this young Tuscan is the 
first sculptor of his time to be commissioned 
and to receive honors side by side with the 
aging master, introducing a new conception 
of restrained beauty, of delicate perception 
and of inconspicuous, pleasing decoration. 
This is the reason we consider as his par- 
ticularly characteristic creations those fig- 
ures of the "Spes" in the Chapel of Monte 

c In the execution of this commission for the final 
adornment of the basilica of the Laterano, which was 
given by Pope Clement XI in 1703 and which was 
accomplished about 1720, participants included, besides 
the sculptors who were already mentioned, Angelo 
de' Rossi, Francesco Moratti and Lorenzo Ottoni; each 
of these artists created one statue. Concerning Rusconi's 
participation compare in particular R. Wittkower in 
Zeitschrijtf. bildende Kunst, Vol. 60 (1927-28), p. 9 ft. 

EDITOR'S NOTE: This series of apostles can be 
seen clearly in Ghezzi's representation of the interior 
of S. Giovanni in Laterano (1725) in the collection of 
the North Carolina Museum of Art. 

7 In connection with the commission for the adorn- 
ment of the church of the Descalzas Reales in Madrid, 
in 1725 Rusconi created the monumental altar relief 
of Francesco da Regis in Glory (compare G. Bottari and 
S. Ticozzi, Raccolta di Letteie . . . , Milano, 1822, II, 
319), whereas Cornacchini created the reclining statue 
of the Saint (see next issue of the present journal). 
This statue, which was destroyed during the Spanish 
Revolutionary War in 1936 (communication of Manu 
Losonte, Madrid), has been authenticated as a work of 
Cornacchini by Gaburri. 

8 On the occasion of the commissioning of the eques- 
trian statue, which was exposed to continual criticism 
due to the conspicuous place it had and the inevitable 
comparison with Bernini's Constantine, the contempo- 
raries did not suppress their doubts as to whether 
Cornacchini really may have been the most capable 
man for such a great task; compare the preface in the 
Relatione della Statua equestre di Carlo Magno eretta nel 
Portico del Tempio Vaticano colla raccolta d'alcuni Componi- 
menti Poetici, Siena, 1725, p. 2, published at the occasion 
of the unveiling of the monument. 

di Pieta or the "Prudentia" in the Corsini 
Chapel of S. Giovanni in Laterano (figure 
3). From the neighboring group at the 
same places, created at the same period, 
they distinguish themselves by their gracile 
constitution, their relaxed movements, and 
the embellishment of draperies and acces- 
sories. Compared to the more formal yet 
always forceful pathos of Rusconi's figures, 
those of the younger master seem less unap- 
proachable, less monumental, more rococo 
in style. It seems to us that this is Cornac- 
chini's contribution to the development of 
sculpture in Rome during the first half of 
that century. By virtue of his moderate, 
amiable temper he gave this period color 
and characteristic traits of the rococo-- 
not really as an adequate opponent of 
Camillo Rusconi, yet representing a per- 
sonality in whose creations we find the 
embodiment of a changing mode of life, of 
a new intellectuality. The sources of his 
artistic expression, shaped equally by no- 
bility as by middle class, can be traced 
with good reason to his Tuscan origin. Only 
one other sculptor of that particular 
period, his younger fellow countryman 
Filippo della Valle, also trained in Foggini's 
workshop, had realized similar work in 
Rome, in the spirit of the rococo. 

Considering Cornacchini's talents for the 
diminutive, for the humanly tangible, no 
more unsuitable commission could be given 
to Cornacchini than the one for the 
equestrian statue of Charlemagne in the 
vestibule of S. Pietro in Vaticano. In the 
ambling of the horse, in the taffeta-like 
creases of the gigantic drapes we perceive 
how little he could match a task which 
would have required an artistic mind 
accustomed to composing on a large scale. 8 
Thus his most monumental creation be- 



Fig. 5. Funeral Chapel of the Savoy, Superga (near Turin). 

came — necessarily, one should say — his 
most violently criticised work. 

But now let us turn to the two passion 
angels in Raleigh. On first sight it may 
seem daring to point beyond a workshop 

group by attributing to a certain artist the 
creation of a pair of isolated putti without 
the knowledge of their origin. Yet no 
matter how closely the vast number of 
putti of the baroque period resemble one 


another since Duquesnoy, a thorough 
examination soon identifies the handwriting 
of the artist. If, for instance, we compare 
Cornacchini's mourning angels in the 
Lateran Corsini Chapel with the neighbor- 
ing "Virtues" by Giuseppe Lironi or by 
Giuseppe Rusconi (figure 4), we find our- 
selves confronted with tiny, agile creatures 
whose muscles and joints are distinctly 
articulated, whose bodies are nearly adult 
in proportion, and whose physiognomies 
display traits which definitely are developed 
beyond their years. In the supple move- 
ments of their joints and in their lively 
gestures they behave almost like boys 
matured into self-consciousness. 

In comparison with those creations the 
angels of Cornacchini (figures 5 and 6) 
seem even more infant-like in constitution 
and attitude. Ball-shaped, chubby faced, 
large heads sit on the well-rounded bodies; 
legs and arms are robust and plump. The 
eyes are rather deeply embedded, which 
makes eyebrows and forehead seem like 
heavy weights stretching above. To such 
exuberant and still completely creature- 
like phenomena belong their somnolent 
state, the reflective expression, and their 
saturated, deliberate, and reserved move- 
ments. Furthermore, attention should be 
drawn to an endeavour typical of Cornac- 
chini, that is, the elimination of any twin- 
like resemblance in all his seemingly paired 
figures by differently arranged hair-styles. 
In our two passion angels (figures 1 and 2), 
the one with the scourge column has 
thickly growing hair bundled into strands 
and rolled up into curls of little lustre. On 
the other hand, the angel with the holy 
handkerchief of Veronica has soft, straight 

9 A. Telluccini, La Real Chiesa di Soperga, Torino, 
1912, p. 81 and note 2. 

hair, silky, shining, and cut short. In the 
putti pair of the Spes or the Prudentia, in 
the pendant groups in Pistoia of the birth 
of Christ and of the descent from the Cross, 
or in the pair of angels in Turin which will 
be mentioned later — everywhere these dif- 
ferences in the treatment of the hair appear 
so methodically that for the identification 
of works by Cornacchini they have the 
significance of his signature. 

In addition to these characteristics of 
style, there are still other indications leading 
us toward attributing the two angels in 
Raleigh to our master. These indications 
might suggest an answer to the question as 
to their original destination, their setting 
up, and their dates. Towards the end of 
the twenties, when the Superga near Turin, 
dedicated by Vittorio Amedeo II of Savoy 
and erected by Filippo Juvarra, was nearly 
completed, Agostino Cornacchini, together 
with Bernardo Cametti from the Piedmont, 
was given the commission for the adorn- 
ment of the interior. He carved one of the 
three great altar reliefs with the presen- 
tation of Mary's birth. On delivery of this 
work in November 1730, the donor entered 
into a second agreement with him "per 
fattura di un bassorilievo in marmo rap- 
presentante la Pieta da collocarsi nella 
Cappella sotterranea della Real Chiesa di 
Soperga." 9 The period and text of this 
second commission do not leave any doubt 
that it was the plan of the king to arrange 
the lower church, which should serve in 
the future as the burial place of the House 
of Savoy, in immediate proximity to the 
main church, completed in 1731. Yet the 
project of this first arrangement was sus- 
pended for several decades after the death 
of Vittorio Amedeo in 1732. 

It was only in 1773 that the grandson 



Vittorio Amedeo III revived the idea of 
a family burial place and, with the help of 
the nephew Juvarras Francesco Martinez 
and his successor Carlo Amedeo Rana 
during the seventies and eighties, he had 
the lower church put into the state in which 
it is preserved until this day 10 (figure 5). 
On this occasion the chapel and burial 
niche received a completely new, coherent 
decoration in which a few items were 
retained of the original fragmentary decora- 
tion from the beginning of the thirties. 
Retained above all was Cornacchini's altar 
relief of the Pieta (figure 5) ; it was, how- 
ever, mutilated by being clipped hori- 
zontally, and even more vertically, so that 
it could be fully visible beyond and above 
the newly erected sarcophagus in the 
middle of the chapel. 11 Also used, further- 
more, were the two passion angels at 
right and left of the relief, together with 
their volutes (figures 6 and 7). These 
mourning angels are so unmistakably char- 
acteristic creatures of Cornacchini that 
even without documentary proof it is 
obvious that they could only have been 
created in connection with the commis- 
sioned altar relief. As to the volute ends 
on which they are placed, they also date 
from the first phase of the arrangement; 
this can be ascertained by an examination 
of their profile, which at no place corre- 
sponds with the one of the renovated altar 
construction of the later period (figure 6). 

Having in mind their style and propor- 
tions, we shall not be able to consider the 
two marble consoles, today empty, in the 

10 A. Telluccini, op., cit., 79. 

11 This compression and "adjustment" of the relief, 
particularly unfortunate in the vertical extension, took 
place after Martinez's death in 1778 and was executed 
by the Architect Carlo Amedeo Rana. Compare 
A. Telluccini op., cit., p. 81. 

Fig. 8. Diagram plan of empty console, Funeral 
Chapel of the Savoy, Superga. 

corners at right and left of the lower altar 
steps (figure 5) as being essential parts of 
the reconstruction. But could they, like 
the others, be a part of the original arrange- 
ment, which remained fragmentary? Then 
could it be, perhaps, that our two angels 
had their original placement at this loca- 
tion? In the framework of the iconographic 
program of the Pieta, with scourge column, 
and the holy handkerchief of Veronica, 
our two angels would quite naturally have 
enriched and completed the composition 
of already existing passion tools, the cross 
and the crown of thorns in the relief itself 
and the nails and pliers which are being 
held by the sitting angels. The measure- 
ments of the tops of the consoles and the 
diameters of the bases of our passion 
angels harmonize to such a degree that 
both parts must, it seems to us, be meant 
for each other (figure 8). 

Our presumption with regard to the 


origin of the two passion angels in Raleigh 
cannot be assured by incontestable proof; 
however, all circumstances point to the 
hypothesis that the angels were part of the 
original arrangement of the Funeral Chapel 
of the Savoy in the Superga near Turin 
and that they were created by Agostino 
Cornacchini in the years 1730 to 1734. 

The next article by Dr. Keutner, to appear in 
the next issue, will contain a newly discovered 
Vita of Cornacchini which he found in the Biblio- 
theca Nazionale, Florence, in addition to illustra- 
tions of some of Cornacchini' s better-known works. 

Dr. Keutner, who is connected with the Kunst- 
historisches Institut in Florence, is an outstanding 
student of Baroque sculpture. 



By Ben F. 

In 1957 many celebrations in Italy 
centered around the two hundreth anni- 
versary of the birth of Antonio Canova, the 
renowned neo-classic sculptor who in 1820, 
a year before his death, completed a monu- 
mental statue of George Washington for 
the State of North Carolina. The statue, an 
over life-sized seated figure, was unveiled 
in the small rotunda of the State House in 
Raleigh, December 24, 1821. 1 The work 
had been commissioned by the North 
Carolina legislature several years earlier— 
a very unusual step for the state legislature 
to take at that time. 

The idea of acquiring a statue of Wash- 
ington for North Carolina was first im- 
planted in the minds of the citizens and 
legislators in Raleigh by A. G. Glynn in a 
patriotic fourth of July celebration speech in 
1815. Washington, and what he stood for, 
was uppermost in the minds of the people. 
After a banquet that evening, the following 
toasts were made: "The memory of George 
Washington tho' every struggle we are 
called upon to make for the maintenance 
of our Independence, will raise up distin- 
guished Heroes and Statesmen, Washington 
will still remain first in the hearts of the 
American People" and "Agriculture, 
Manufacturers, Commerce, and the Arts — 
the great sources of National wealth and 
grandeur." 2 

Shortly afterwards a committee from the 
legislature began to look for an American 

1 Raleigh Register, December 1821. 

2 Raleigh Register, July 7, 1815. 

See also R. D. W. Conner, Canova' s Statue of Washington, 
1910, and Albert TenEyck Gardner, Yankee Stone 
Cutters, New York, Columbia University Press, 1945. 


sculptor to do the work. They wrote to 
important statesmen and national leaders 
asking for their advice in the matter. 
They received many suggestions but most 
agreed that America, at that time, could 
not provide a sculptor competent enough 
to execute such a work. Thomas Jefferson, 
writing from Monticello, January 22, 1816, 
dispatched a long letter carefully covering 
all angles that should be considered in 
such an undertaking and saying that there 
was only one answer as to whom the com- 
mission should be given. He recommended 
"Old Canove" of Rome — the most famous 
and respected sculptor in all Europe. 
Jefferson stated that Canova, as all people 
of taste in Europe, would surely make the 
costume of Washington Roman, which was 
the epitome of the neoclassic fashion in 
vogue at that time. 

Canova accepted the commission and 
began to work. Four years later the statue 
reached its destination. There are first- 
hand accounts in contemporary Raleigh 
papers expressing the ripple of excitement 
when the celebrated statue finally arrived. 
People lined the roadsides to see the "father 
of our country" being hauled by oxen 
into Raleigh over the plank road from 
Fayetteville. The statue had been taken to 
the Italian port of Leghorn, hence to Bos- 
ton, down to Wilmington and up the Cape 
Fear River to Fayetteville where it began 
its land journey once again. There was 
much discussion and marveling over the 
statue of George Washington dressed in 
Roman armor, a tunic and a flowing toga, 
seated with one sandled foot outstretched. 


Fig. 1. Lithograph showing General Lafayette observing statue of George Washington installed on 
pedestal in State House rotunda in Raleigh. From nineteenth century lithograph. Hall of History, 


a tablet representing his Farewell Address 
in his left hand, a stylus in his right 
hand poised after having inscribed the 
tablet "Giorgio Washington al popolo 
degli Stati Uniti; Amici e Concittadini. . . ." 
The marble sculpture was finally put into 
place in the Capitol. After the long opera- 
tion, one observer commented that the 
base of the statue should have had rollers 
under it in case there was ever a need to 
get it out of the Capitol quickly, but no 
one heeded his remark. Since the fine 
statue had come all the way from Rome 
without a scratch, it was thought indestruct- 
ible. 3 The capital building was then re- 
modeled to enhance its surroundings. The 
statue, the first significant sculpture to be 
imported, was considered everywhere in 
America the finest work of art in the 
country. It was reproduced in several 
lithographs and engravings of the time, one 
of which shows General Lafayette, who 
visited Raleigh in 1825, admiring it and 
commenting on the likeness in the face. 
(See figure 1 .) 

In 1830, nine years after the arrival of 
the statue, the Capitol burned and the 
statue being too heavy to move was crushed 
in the flames. When the new state capitol 
was begun in 1833 by Towne and Davis, 
the rotunda was designed with the hope of 
having the broken statue repaired and 
returned to its place on view. The hope 
was shattered, however, when Robert Ball 
Hughes, employed for the project of restora- 
tion, ran off with his fee and with some 
important pieces of marble, never to return. 

In this country, Canova and the statue 
of George Washington faded into the past 
until 1910 when the Italian government 

3 The statue was signed and marked "Roma." (From 
remaining fragments.) 

presented the state with a plaster cast of 
it which is now in the Hall of History in 

Antonio Canova was born in 1757 and 
died in 1821. He worked in Rome, Venice 
and Possagno. His works, too numerous to 
mention in detail here, can be found in 
abundance in Italy and are included in 
museum collections throughout the Western 
World. They include many mythological 
subjects, tomb sculptures and portraits in 
which he tried to revive the Greek and 
Roman idea of formal beauty. In the 
Palazzo Pesaro, Venice, is a painting of 
his funeral, and a short distance away in a 
large church, Santa Maria Gloriosa dei 
Frari, which contains the tombs of many 
famous Venetians, one can see the well- 
known tomb of Canova, a pyramidal 
structure with eight figures designed by 
Canova but executed by his pupils. 

One day this past summer, upon going 
to these places in Venice, my wife and I 
began thinking again of the statue of 
George Washington and wondering how 
and where we could see more of the works 
of Canova and perhaps secure some more 
information on the statue completed over 
a hundred years ago for Raleigh. The 
following day I found a small red pamphlet 
entitled This Week in Venice; it contained 
various advertisements and announcements, 
and on the last page we found a very small 
ad with a drawing entitled "The Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of Canova, 1757- 
1957 — For information — see these tourist 
bureaus — " and at the bottom in very 
small print "Treviso and Possagno." The 
small drawing showed a domed building 
with an eight-column facade, a neoclassic 
adaption of the Pantheon, standing on a 
hill; at the foot of the hill was a simple 


Fig. 2. Full-scale pointing-up model for statue of George Washington. Canova Museum, Possagno. 

Photograph courtesy of the Istituto di Storia dell' Arte Fondazione Giorgio Cini di Venezia. 


rectangular building — a drawing of the 
temple of Canova which dominates the 
little town of his birth, Possagno. We found 
on the map that Possagno is a small moun- 
tain village northwest of Venice and that 
Treviso, much larger, is closer to Venice. 
The Venice tourist office knew little except 
that perhaps there was a Canova exhibition 
in Treviso. Looking in a guide book we 
noticed that the Museo Civico is on a street 
named Canova, which encouraged us. As 
we were planning to go to Padua the next 
day, we thought a trip to Treviso would 
be a very easy side jaunt. The next morn- 
ing we stopped by a bookshop to get an 
Italian guide book but found only a few 
lines on Canova in an out-of-date travel 
book. Possagno was not even listed. 

After a morning in Padua, we arrived in 
Treviso at about 2:30 p.m. The tourist 
office, as well as the museum, was closed 
for lunch and a policeman with whom we 
talked knew nothing of the Canova exhibit. 
His face lightened as he showed us on the 
map where Possagno was and said perhaps 
we should go there to find out. Finally a 
travel bureau opened next door; they 
knew nothing of the exhibit. The four in 

j charge of the bureau were kind enough to 
draw a chart showing two routes to 
Possagno, each of which led through at 
least four small towns and on the chart 
they had indicated one route as very good 
and the other as very bad. The afternoon 
was passing quickly but we decided to go. 
With a map that showed only a few of the 

! roads we were to follow, we started out in 
the direction of the good roads. After 
thirty miles we reached Montebelluna, 
having passed by the famous Villa Barbara 
designed by Palladio and decorated by 

Veronese. The next town of any size was 
Asola, perched on the side of a mountain 
with very narrow and steep streets and an 
ancient castle standing guard above the 
town. Our small French car would barely 
squeeze through the narrow streets. The 
infrequent road signs were rusting and 
falling to the wayside, so it was necessary 
to ask directions again. We were directed 
down a narrow street and suddenly found 
ourselves on a bumpy dirt road; one of the 
good roads recommended in Treviso! We 
drove on, passing lumbering white oxen 
pulling wooden carts; farmers, even here 
in the hills, proudly peddling their bicycles 
loaded with wooden farm implements, 
rakes and hoes. The road became increas- 
ingly narrow and steep, and v\e were sure 
that the directions were wrong; the moun- 
tains, described in one of the guide books 
as one of the principal strongholds of the 
Italian front during 1917-18, were close 
around us. We stopped again and a farmer 
indicated with a slice of his arm a left turn 
several forks ahead. We drove on and 
suddenly in the distance the temple of 
Canova could be seen crowning a hill — a 
strange monument in an unexpected place 
— recognizable from the miniature drawing 
in the pamphlet. The only street in Pos- 
sagno turns and runs down a slight hill. 
The studio and birthplace of Canova is 
below street level on the right and the 
temple hill rises to the left of the street. It 
was clear that Possagno was not quite ready 
to entertain visitors although eight months 
of the anniversary year had passed. A few 
workmen were making the street passable, 
lightposts lay on their sides in the ditches, 
and a semblance of a parking lot had been 
starteJ. The corner room of an old building 


had a new yellow and red sign over the 
door which read "Ufficio di Turismo" in 
eight-inch letters. 

"Canova," the man in the office repeated 
after us as he rose from his chair which was 
propped against the wall, "yes, next door," 
and he pointed to the large stucco rec- 
tangular building next door. "It's open," 
he said proudly. We pushed open the 
small white door over which hung a dry 
withered wreath; a woman came forth, 
greeted us and collected the entrance fee 
of a hundred lire; then she called her 
husband who led us past the cast of a giant 
sandaled foot and then into a courtyard. A 
large banana tree stood in one corner, and 
fig trees and flowers grew in the open court. 
He led us down the back wing of the build- 
ing, opened the door and ushered us into a 
large vaulted room which contained most 
of Canova's working models — models of 
Cupid and Psyche, Pauline Borghese, 
Clement XIII — and some very large 
figures as well as relief sculptures along the 
wall. The only other people there that day 
were two young German tourists who had 
followed us up the road on a motorcycle 
and into the museum. We aroused a small 
guard who was sleeping behind one of the 
casts and he followed us around and pointed 
to the "Do Not Touch" signs. Even though 
the room was large, it was not quite large 
enough to house all the casts comfortably. 
They were crowded together and pushed 
toward the center in several places where 
the walls were being painted. George 
Washington sat at one end of the room 
near the niche containing the large model of 
Hercules and Lichas (figure 2). This, 
the working model which served for the 
pointing-up of the original marble in 1816- 
1820, contains much more detail than the 

cast in the Hall of History. We wandered 
among the chalky white statues (there were a 
few marble works), and we could not help 
but wonder how the models were trans- 
ported to and from Possagno. The plank 
road from Fayetteville to Raleigh was 
nothing to compare to the winding narrow 
roads leading to Possagno. 

Knowing that there had been some 
correspondence from the North Carolina 
legislature and Thomas Jefferson who had 
recommended Canova to create the statue 
of Washington, we inquired of the woman 
who had let us in if the letters were avail- 
able; whereupon she led us into the ground 
floor of the second wing, evidently Canova's 
living quarters. There, in a series of small 
rooms, were many sketches and small 
models in terra cotta and plaster and a few 
paintings. Over one door a portrait by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence shows the sculptor in 
a very handsome pose. One could under- 
stand how his personal appearance must 
have commanded the attention of the 
aristocrats surrounding him -kings, queens, 
Pope Pius VII, who made him Marquis 
and Count Palatine, Pauline Bonaparte, 
the Princess Borghese, portrayed by him 
as Venus Victrix who reclines nude on a 
couch. Some of the models were in glass 
cases, but most of them were sitting on 
makeshift wooden planks toppling on kegs 
and barrels. We studied these and then 
were taken upstairs to additional rooms 
filled with similar items from his produc- 
tion. In the third room we came upon 
three small studies of George Washington. 
One was a terra cotta sketch about 
one-fifth life size which obviously was 
the first sketch made for the figure 
and drapery; it gives one a glimpse of the 
true creative skill of the artist before the 



addition of those forced elements of the 
neoclassicists (see figure 3). The next piece, 
a small nude study for the figure, was a 
studio pose indicating the extensive and 
rigid steps taken by artists in the early 
nineteenth century for academic accuracy 
(see figure 4). The third study of the same 
size was very close to the finished work 
except for changes in drapery and the 
placement of the bound sword which lay 
under the feet of the subject (see figure 5). 
Canova used a study made from a portrait 
bust by Ceracchi for his basic information 
on Washington's face. 4 He found the plaster 
bust in a provincial museum in France and 
made a study from it with slight alterations. 
Canova's study of the bust is also preserved 
in Possagno. (See figure 6.) Ceracchi's 
original marble went to the king of Spain. 
The next room contained a canopy bed and 
some of Canova's personal effects, a death 
mask and several of his oil paintings. We 
stood in the hallway and in our broken 
Italian, dictionary in hand, were finally able 
to communicate to the woman that we were 
from Raleigh, North Carolina, and we 
were interested in seeing any correspond- 
ence concerning the Washington statue, if 
it were available. The woman again called 
out the window to her husband, who 
graciously came and told us that the draw- 
ings, letters and other items were in 
another exhibition in Bassano del Grappa, 
a town about twelve miles over the moun- 
tains. We asked if we could purchase 

4 Many replicas of the popular Ceracchi bust were 
made early in the nineteenth century. 

5 Since the writing of this article the well-known 
Canova scholar Elena Bassi has published La Gipsoteca 
di Possagno, Sculture e dipinti di Antonio Canova, Venezia, 
Neri Pozza Editor, 1957. It was published by Foundation 
Giorgio Cini, Venice. Another book by Elena Bassi is 
Canova, published in 1943 by Istituto Italiano D'Arti 
Grafiche, Roma. 

photographs of the Washington studies. 
They indicated that the large cast had been 
photographed, and we were given a post 
card of it; but no photographs had been 
made of the other studies. Thanks to the 
generous co-operation of Dr. Michelangelo 
Muraro, superintendent of monuments, 
Venice, who arranged through the Istituto 
di Storia dell'Arte Fondazione Giorgio 
Cini di Venezia to have photographs made, 
we are able to include a number of photo- 
graphs heretofore unpublished in America.'' 
By this time it was growing dark, but we 
asked directions to Bassano del Grappa and 
were told that the roads were impassable 

Fig. 6. Model after Ceracchi for likeness of 
George Washington. Canova Museum, Pos- 

Photograph courtesy of the Istituto di Storia dell'Arte 
Fondazione Giorgio Cini di Venezia. 


at present and that we could not get 
through with a car. Giving up the idea of 
going over to Bassano del Grappa, we 
asked about the temple on the hill. The 
woman said that it was the tomb Canova 
had built for himself. "Canova is not buried 
in Venice then?" we asked. With gestures 
the woman told us that Canova was buried 
in Possagno, but his hands were buried in 

Returning to the car, we drove up the 
wide terraced gravel road to the temple. 
The clouds nearly touched the dome, and 
a few drops of rain began to fall. A small 

door on one side was open; we entered a 
brightly decorated church with a gold 
coffered dome. On one side was the marble 
tomb of Canova with a fresh wreath upon 
it. Tall dark junipers bordered the path 
leading from the temple to the top of the 
adjoining mountain. Some small children 
were playing with the gravel on the steps 
of the temple. 

We drove away from Possagno as the 
threatening sky broke and large drops of 
rain splashed down, further delaying work 
for the two hundredth anniversary cele- 
bration of the birth of Antonio Canova. 



By Adele Coulin Weibel 

An outstanding place in the history of 
textile art belongs to the so-called Coptic 
textiles, for they demonstrate an immense 
step in the evolution from extrinsic to in- 
trinsic decoration, from embroidery on a 
finished fabric to the production of ground 
and pattern in one phase. In a ground 
weave of plain linen the weaver inserted 
his little pictures, with bobbins strung with 
wool threads, one bobbin for each color, 
and ran them across the warp only as far 
as that special shade was needed. A tapestry 
woven ornament on a wall hanging looked 
like a stone mosaic on the floor, as both 
techniques shared a similar difficulty for 
the designers, angularity of outline. How 
successfully they dealt with this problem is 
well illustrated by the fine groups of textiles 
presented to the North Carolina Museum 
of Art by Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen and 
by the late Mrs. Katherine Pendleton 

In Egypt the weaving of wool tapestry 
for ornaments into linen fabrics began 
with the Hellenistic period and continued 
through the centuries of Roman overlord- 
ship. The present-day name of these 
fabrics, "Coptic," refers them to the Copts. 
This name is a medieval European form of 
the Arabic Kubt, which is derived from the 
Greek aiguptioi, Egyptians; it was used 
especially to designate the native Christian 
population. When Egypt was conquered by 
the Arabs in 641, the Coptic craftsmen 

1 Oval motive, 3d to 4th century. Accession number 
G.57.14.6; diameter 16 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen. 

2 Round motive, 3d to 4th century. Accession number 
G.57.14.1; diameter 8 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred 

continued working for their new masters, 
still weaving polychrome tapestry borders 
into linen fabrics, but the beautifully tinted 
wool was gradually superseded by silk. The 
best Coptic textiles were woven during the 
fourth and fifth centuries, when mono- 
chrome and polychrome details were some- 
times combined in one ornament. 

Three specimens represent the earliest 
type of decoration. It is executed of one 
color only, which originally looked like 
true purple but which, due to chemical 
action while buried, has darkened rather 
than faded to a bluish or blackish brown. 
The true shellfish purple was a jealously 
kept secret of the Phoenicians, whose price 
was beyond the means of the average 
citizen, so the Egyptian dyers used instead 
a combination of madder and indigo. Onto 
this monochrome background the weaver 
designed a pattern of scrolls and inter- 
lacings with the "flying needle," a bobbin 
strung with fine white linen threads, which 
crossed freely in every direction over the 
solid tapestry ground. Three specimens 
illustrate the wide variety of geometric 
motives used in these designs. They are 
ingeniously combined and already point to 
a blending of Hellenistic and Near Eastern 
influences. There is an oval ornament 1 
which shows, within a frame of running 
waves, an octagonal star composed of 
small squares of alternating patterns, and 
four triangles with groups of roundels in 
the spandrels. Another ornament looks 
somewhat like a porringer with two 
handles, 2 with remains of a decoration of 
interlaced ribbons and a string of beads 


Fig. 2. Textile Fragment. Coptic, fourth to fifth century A. D. 8 x 15 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

A star-shaped ornament 3 shows a closely 
related intertwined motive within a more 
lightly indicated string of beads, and a 
framework with vine leaves. All three 
fabrics belong to the early period of the 
third to fourth century. 

The influence of Hellenistic art makes 
itself felt in a square ornament, 4 which 
shows a winged genius in a framework of 
roundels of intertwisted ribbons filled alter- 
nately with vine leaves and plain round 
shapes, and a string of beads. The genius 
is a delightful boy, running with wide- 

3 Star-shaped motive, 3d to 4th century. Accession 
number G.57.14.11; height 10 inches, width 8 inches. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen. 

4 Square motive, 4th century; Accession number, 
G.57.14.9; height 8 inches, width 7 inches. Gift of Dr. 
and Mrs. Fred Olsen. 

5 Horizontal band, 4th to 5th century. Accession 
number G. 57. 14.7; height 8 inches, length 15 inches. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen. 

spread arms and wings through a landscape 
that is just barely indicated by a few plants. 
In its sheer beauty this little panel fore- 
shadows the finest tondi of the Italian 
renaissance. (See figure 1.) 

A rather unusual border, probably part 
of a curtain, shows an attempt at combining 
a little color with the preponderant purple. 5 
The main band shows a spirited race of 
animals, lions running to right, rabbits to 
left, each enclosed in a leafy oval. The 
designer liked symmetry, so he provided 
the rabbits with nice long tails. The framing 
bands show tendrils of a rare grace, with 
red and green leaves on a wavy stem of 
light brown. This is a real brown shade, 
not faded purple. (See figure 2.) 

Another monochrome border, woven as 
a double band with the units of design 
shifted above one another, must be dated 


Fig. 4. Panel from Tunic. Coptic, fifth century A. D. 11 x 14 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred 
Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

in the late sixth or early seventh century, 
not long before the Islamic conquest. 6 There 
is little left of the Hellenistic spirit beyond 
the groups of three small leaves growing 
from the rims of the octagons, and they 
evoke a slight feeling of nostalgia. By using 
purple and white wefts in alternate lines 

6 Horizontal border, 6th to 7th cenutry. Accession 
number G57.14.4; height 6 inches, length 12 inches. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen. 

7 Square motif, 5th century. Accession number 
G. 57. 14. 5; size 8 by 8 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred 

for the background of the animals, the 
weaver produced a new color effect. The 
cut-off "hedge" or "comb" at both ends 
may have belonged to an alternate pattern 
between groups of octagons. 

We return to the square ornaments 
which were such an important part of the 
decoration of men's and women's dresses. 
A specially delightful specimen has its 
center in purple, the wide frame in a variety 
of colors. 7 Here a Nilotic scene is repre- 


sented, the water is shown golden yellow- 
perhaps a hue the Nile takes on at sunset. 
Fishes large and small swim among the 
lotus plants; people sit in little boats. The 
center square is almost covered by a blackish 
roundel, and here a horseman goes hunting. 
A comparison with the winged boy of the 
earlier specimen shows the decline of 
Coptic design. (See figure 3.) 

Perhaps it would be truer to consider 
the change as due to neglect of design and 
stressing of coloristic effects. A typical 
example is a square ornament with areas 
of black, yellow and red 8 . Originally, 
when the black was purple, it must have 
been even more of a color orgy. The figure 
in the center combines all these colors, with 
green for the waistband and the bag it 

A rectangular motif 9 combines a central 
quatrefoil with a border that may also 
have occurred at the neckline or shoulder 
bands, perhaps at the hemline. The orna- 
ment combines blue and red in the border 
and center. The putto is fairly well designed, 
and the border decoration has a jeweled 

Complete tunics are seldom found, but 
now and then the front panels are preserved, 
or enough of them remains to show the 
type of decoration. Thus a front panel 10 
shows both shoulder bands and the neck- 

8 Square motif, 6th to 7th century. Accession number 
G.57.14.8; size 5 by 5 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen. 

9 Rectangular motif, 6th to 7th century. Accession 
number G. 52. 1.4; height 13 inches, width 15J/2 inches. 
Gift of Mrs. Katherine Pendleton Arrington. 

10 Panel of a tunic, 5th to 6th century. Accession 
number G. 57. 14.2; length 18 inches, width 11 inches. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen. 

11 Fragmentary panel of a tunic, 5th c entury. Accession 
number G. 57. 14. 3; height 11 inches, width 14 inches. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen. 

12 Panel of a tunic, 5th to 6th century. Accession num- 
ber G.52.1.3; height 17 inches, width 10j^ inches. Gift 
of Mrs. Katherine Pendleton Arrington. 

line. There is a main border with a pattern 
of zigzag lines and triangles on a red 
ground, with a lace-like edging of dark 
green, faded to a greyish tint. Across the 
front, at the neck between the main border 
and its edging, an extra band is added 
which shows rose red motives on dark blue 

An innovation of the fifth century, 
obviously the result of influence from 
Syria, was the use of wool for the entire 
tunic. Even in Egypt there are cold days. 
The Hellenistic population had been satis- 
fied with linen fabrics woven with long 
loops that were produced by wefts pulled 
up at intervals, much like the modern 
bath towels. But now the Copts liked the 
comfort of woolen tunics, which are often 
dyed a bright yellow, green, red, or blue. 
They are rep woven throughout, on linen 
warps. The large fragment of a front panel 
indicates the former splendor of such a 
tunic. 11 On the dark blue ground the 
decoration is designed lightly, in tones of 
beige and brown. The shoulder bands 
show nude figures in dancing costume. At 
the neckline three pendant medallions look 
like a jeweled necklace, like that worn by 
the Empress Theodora on the mosaic in 
the church of San Vitale at Ravenna. 
(See figure 4.) 

Another all wool tunic was red, with its 
front decoration well preserved on a large 
panel. 12 Here the design of the shoulder 
bands is continued across the neckline. In 
purple (now almost black) on beige ground, 
soldiers performing a Pyrrhic dance and 
diverse animals are shown in a lively med- 
ley, three birds bow gravely, and simple 
beaded lines make a handsome finish. 
(See figure 5.) 

Christian subjects occur rarely in these 


Fig. 5. Panel from Tunic. Coptic, fifth to sixth century A. D. 17 x \0}4 inches (reproduced hori- 
zontally). Gift of Mrs. Katherine Pendleton Arrington, Warrenton. 

Coptic fabrics. But a shoulder band 13 
shows a saint, on light rose red ground, set 
off against a lozenge design on dark blue 
with flowers and animals. 

A Christian saint, this time in half 
length, is depicted as the main decoration 
of a sleeve. 14 She looks like an orant with 
arms raised. But she is much older than 

13 Shoulder band, 6th to 7th century. Accession num- 
ber G. 57. 14. 10; length 18 inches, width 3 inches. Gift 
of Dr and Mrs. Fred Olsen. 

14 Sleeve ornament and waist band, 6th to 7th century. 
Accession number G. 52. 1.2. Sleeve ornament length 
11 inches, width 3H inches; waist band length 6H 
inches, width 2 inches. Gift of Mrs. Katherine Pendleton 

16 Panel with allover design, 6th to 7th century. 
Accession number G. 52. 1.1; length 9% inches, width 
31 Yi inches. Gift of Mrs. Katherine Pendleton Arrington. 

Christianity; she is a nature goddess, 
possibly Atargatis herself, holding up with 
both hands a scarf filled with the fruits of 
the earth, her gift to humanity. This band 
has a red ground; the waistband below it 
shows, on darkest blue, part of a handsome 
allover design, probably adapted from a 
shuttle-woven silk fabric. (See figure 6.) 

And lastly there is a panel which is a 
clear copy of a silk fabric. 15 Jeweled bands 
form an allover diaper, with palmettes and 

Fabrics of this kind must have looked 
good to the conquering Arabs, and it is 
easy to understand why they availed them- 
selves of the service of these excellent 


craftsmen, the Copts, who were quite 
ready to adapt their art to the creation of 
designs that would please their new over- 

Mrs. Coulin Weibel, outstanding American 
authority on early textiles, is Curator Emeritus 
of Textiles and Near Eastern Art at the Detroit 
Institute of Arts. 

Fig. 6. Sleeve Ornament and Waist Band. Coptic, sixth to seventh century A. D. Top: ly 2 x 11 
inches; bottom: 2x6^ inches. Gift of Mrs. Katherine Pendleton Arrington, Warrenton. 


Fig. 1. Lyonel Feininger (American, 1871-1956), The Green Bridge. Signed and dated 1916. Oil 
on canvas, A9j4 x 39^2 inches. Gift of Mrs. Ferdinand Moller, Cologne. 



By James B. Byrnes 

In the short span of twenty months the 
Museum has received the gift of a number 
of outstanding works by artists of the twen- 
tieth century. We are especially grateful to 
the many private collectors who have 
donated this foundation group of paintings 
around which a significant collection can 
be built. 

The gifts thus far represent European 
and American art over a forty-year period 
with examples of documentary, as well as 
aesthetic, importance. The earliest canvas 
is a work by Lyonel Feininger dated 
1916, "Die Grime Briicke" or "The Green 
Bridge" (figure 1). The title has a timely 
interest since the painting was received 
during the E. L. Kirchner Exhibition, the 
gift of Mrs. Ferdinand Moller of Cologne. 
In 1905 Kirchner was a founder of the 
important expressionist group called "Die 
Briicke. " Feininger, who is alternately 
identified with American and German art, 
has provided us with a work which com- 
bines elements of earlier Italian futurism 
and French orphist circular interpene- 
trating plane forms with an almost decora- 
tive use of color, recalling his subtle impact 
on set designers for expressionist film efforts 
of the time, such as "The Cabinet of Dr. 
Caligari," which was made three years 
after our painting was executed. 

Of the same year as the film, the Museum 
has received a water color "Boats" (figure 
2) by another German artist, Max Pech- 
stein, who was also identified with the 
Briicke group, having joined them in their 
first exhibition in 1906. Pechstein was 
perhaps not always one of the most original 

Fig. 2. Max Pechstein (German, 1881-1955), 
Boats. Water color, 14^ x 18 inches. Gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. Louis. 

artists in the group, and unlike the others, 
he was a restless personality, travelling 
about a great deal. In 1915, after having 
been held in the Orient because of the 
confusion of the war, he sailed to San 
Francisco where he spent three months, 
returning to Germany to enter military 
service. A few years later, he began to 
paint his earlier remembered travels — not 
always with great success. Our water color 
follows this period when he again turned 
his talent to current experience, and in this 
painting one finds evidence of the calli- 
graphic brevity which stems from the period 
of his association with the Briicke group. 
The watercolor is the gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
S. J. Levin of St. Louis, Missouri. 

With the exception of one portrait by 
Derain, twentieth (and late nineteenth) 
century French painting and sculpture 


Fig. 3. Jean Helion (French, born 1904), Untitled. Oil on canvas, 51 x 64 inches. Long-term loan 
from Miss Peggy Guggenheim, Venice. 

were unfortunately not represented in the 
Museum until Miss Peggy Guggenheim 
of Venice lent the canvas by Jean 
Helion, "Untitled" (figure 3), which will 
be a gift to the Museum in due time. 
Painted in 1934, this handsome abstraction 
dates from the terminal year that Helion 
was active in the abstraction-creation group. 
In this painting Helion has used non- 
representational forms to create a clean 
architectural arrangement of shapes in 

depth, the larger vertical monolithic ele- 
ments almost in repose, a feeling which is 
heightened by the active horizontal rec- 
tangular shapes on the right. It is a gentle 
painting executed with subtle colorisms; its 
purity in abstraction, combined with ele- 
ments of the surreal, suggests a dream 

Through the generosity of a collector who 
resides in this city, the Museum received 
the gift of the following collection of out- 



Fig. 4. Mark Toby (American, born 1890), 
Calligraphic III. Monoprint, 18 x 11^4 inches. 
Gift of an anonymous Raleigh collector. 

standing examples of American contempor- 
ary art. Two works in the group are by 
well-established artists from the northwest 
section of the United States who, aside 
from their geographical proximity, differ 
vastly in personality, experience and phi- 
losophy. Mark Toby's life has centered 
around Oriental philosophy, as can be 
seen in his mystical intuitive monoprint 
"Calligraphic III" (figure 4), which demon- 
strates his mastery of the expressive power 
of simple and direct brush drawing. 
Softened into and through the surface of 
the paper, the swinging lines and shapes 
combine into a joyous, sparkling little 
space-world. An entirely opposite person- 
ality is the late C. S. Price, whose early 
training and experience was that of an illus- 

trator, and who lived a great part of his life 
as a cowboy. In his later years Price painted 
a number of canvases using figures and 
animals painted in large flat areas of muted 
color. In his painting "Two Heads" 
(figure 5) he has simplified the forms to 
almost sculptural brevity, hinting at an 
element of Christian tragedy not unlike 
that of Rouault, or if you prefer, Nolde. 
Price is an example of an important original 
artist whose rank has been established 
through his exhibitions in Portland and 
New York. 

Two ink drawings with water color "He 
de France" (figure 6) and "Untitled" by 
Robert Motherwell are welcome items in 
the group gift. Motherwell, who lives in 
New York, is most frequently identified 
with the so-called "School of New York" 
which came to the fore shortly after the 
close of World War II. The artists of the 
original group have since been variously 
described as "non-objective" or "abstract- 
expressionist" painters in the popular press, 
and while the individual artists reject such 
labelling, it is difficult to find a more 

Fig. 6. Robert Motherwell (American, born 
1915), He de France. Ink with water color, 7 x 10 
inches. Gift of an anonymous Raleigh collector. 


Fig. 5. C. S. Price (American, 1874-1950), Two Heads. Oil on board, \5]/ 2 x 2034 inches. Gift of 
W. R. Valentiner, Raleigh. 

appropriate designation for Motherwell, 
Rothko, DeKooning, Pollock, Kline and 
other artists who have contributed so much 
to American (and European) painting of 
our time. 

Two artists from the western part of 
the United States, Emerson Woelffer 
and Richard Diebenkorn, are each repre- 
sented by major oil paintings, Woelffer by 
"The Sea" (figure 7) and Diebenkorn by 

"Berkeley No. 8" (figure 8). Both artists 
have also been referred to as "non-ob- 
jective" painters, despite the fact that each 
works closely with the experience of nature. 
Diebenkorn, who now lives and teaches in 
Berkeley, California, is one of the younger 
generation of painters whose recent works 
include more figurative elements than 
before. His use of bold slashing forms, 
always in contrast to high-keyed lyrical 


Fig. 8. Richard Diebenkorn (American, born 1922), Berkeley No. 8. Oil on canvas, 69*4 x 59^ 
inches. Gift of W. R. Valentiner, Raleigh. 


color, express a vigorous and youthfully 
romatic creative personality. Woelffer on 
the other hand is an artist of more extro- 
verted temperament. His use of brilliant 
color applied with broad energized strokes 
evokes the inference of internal and exterior 
landscape, whereas Diebenkorn's stratified 
forms have a strong subterranean sug- 
gestion. Woelffer is presently staying on 
the Isle of Ischia off the Italian coast, 
preparing for a New York exhibition in the 

Another traveller to Italy, William Cong- 
don, is represented by a painting, "Piazza, 
Venice," 1952, a gift in the same group. 
More representational in execution, artist 
Congdon's painting depicts the Piazza San 
Marco in an expressionist linear style using 
monochromatic earth tones with silver and 
gold. This painting is one of a series of 
views of Venice painted while the artist 
was abroad on a scholarship. 

An ink and wash study (figure 9) for 
Rico Lebrun's large triptych "The Cruci- 
fixion" (which has recently been presented 
to Syracuse University) is the gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. James B. Byrnes, Raleigh. 
Lebrun now lives and works in Los Angeles, 
where in 1951 over two hundred paintings 
and drawings comprising "The Cruci- 
fixion" were first shown at the Los Angeles 
County Museum. Since that time, many 
of the most important elements of this 
powerful work have been acquired by 
leading museums. Lebrun, always a master 
of drawing, has incorporated in our sketch 
the ideas which climaxed the Crucifixion 
series in the large panel mentioned above. 

The American artists mentioned thus 
far are all in mid- or late career (one or two 
have lived out their lives), and most are 
represented in major museums and private 
collections. However, the Museum is 
pleased to have examples of works by the 

Fig. 9. Rico Lebrun (American, born Italy, 1900), The Crucifixion. Ink and wash, 11 x 23 inches. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James B. Byrnes, Raleigh. 


Fig. 10. Felix Pasilis (American, born 1922), Palm Frond. Oil on canvas, 43 x 51 inches. Gift of Mr. 
James I. Merrill, New York. 

younger generation of artists, many of 
whom have come to attention in the past 
few years. Through the generous co-opera- 
tion of John Myers of the Tibor de Nagy 
Gallery, New York, this Museum received 
three paintings by these younger artists, 
the gift of Mr. James I. Merrill of New 
York. By and large, these young painters 
draw more readily from the visual world, 
encouraging objects to play a vital role in 
their work. "Palm Frond" (figure 10) by 

Felix Pasilis shows an assemblage of still 
life objects, painted with original gusto, 
using brilliant and at times, almost fluores- 
cent color which provides us with an 
intensely dramatic experience with objects 
of almost neutral concern. Grace Hartigan 
is represented by the painting "Interior 
with Mexican Doll" (figure 11). Like 
many of today's artists, Miss Hartigan 
paints large canvases, and while this always 
brings to mind the question of appropriate- 


work also illustrates the tendency among 
the younger painters of today to use 
stronger, almost strident, primary color to 
intensify the paintings' content. 

The gift of Mrs. Barbara Wescott of 
Clinton, New Jersey, is a water color (figure 
12) by Robert Andrew Parker, who enjoys 
recognition as an illustrator as well as an 
artist and teacher. Working with bristling, 
blurred ink and water color, Parker grows 
out of the tradition of Demuth and the 
early George Grosz, creating apocryphal 
history and incongruous figures for his 
subject theme. In the case of our water color 
"Some People on the Beach," one is con- 
scious of a strong sculptural quality, the 
result of rinsing the surface color so that 
the figures merge as they would under 
strong sunlight. 

The latest accession is an oil by Charles 
Shaw of New York which comes as the gift 

Fig. 13. Charles Shaw (American, born 1892), Dawn of Genesis. Oil on canvas, 40 x 80 inches. 
Gift of Miss Georgette Passedoit, New York. 


Fig. 12. Robert Andrew Parker (American, 
born 1928), Some People at the Beach. Water color, 
2\}4 x 31 inches. Gift of Mrs. Barbara Wescott, 
Clinton, New Jersey. 

ness of scale, the free-swinging manner of 
combined painting and drawing would 
seem to require a greater area to carry 
forward the artist's total intention. Her 


of Miss Georgette Passedoit of New York. 
Shaw, born in 1892, studied art in Europe 
and America and has exhibited with the 
American Abstract Artists' Group since 
1937. His painting "Dawn of Genesis" of 
1956 (figure 13) recalls the long tradition 
of abstract art in this country, since in our 
painting one can detect an original artist 
who invokes the tradition of such earlier 
artists as Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, 
and their contemporaries. In his painting 
Shaw uses metaphoric shapes suggestive of 
blooming flowers against sky forms. The 
mood of the canvas is somber, almost dis- 

quieting, connecting it with the symbolist 
aesthetic which continues to engage many 
original artists. 

After reviewing the variety and scope of 
these recent gift paintings, it is somewhat 
surprising to find that in this short time 
twentieth century art has become so well 
represented in our collection; this is not 
to say that we have more than a happy 
beginning. It is our sincere hope that we 
can begin to acquire outstanding con- 
temporary sculpture as well as to add to 
this foundation collection of paintings. 


July 16, 1957, to March 4, 1958 

American Paintings 

William Stanley Haseltine (1835-1900), 
"Amain, Valle della Molina." Gift of Mrs. 
Helen Haseltine Plowden, Boston (G.57.- 
24.1). Water color on paper, h:18J/2, w:23 
inches. Dated 1856. Exhib.: Mint Museum 
of Art, Charlotte, North Carolina, 1957. 

Charles Green Shaw (born 1892), "Dawn 
of Genesis." Gift of Miss Georgette Passe- 
doit, New York (G.57.29.1). Canvas, h:40, 
w:80 inches. Signed; dated on reverse, 1956. 

Man Ray (born 1890), "Diderot's 
Harpsichord or The Merchant of Venice." 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Paul Wescher, Santa 
Monica (G. 57. 30.1). Canvas, h:36, w:30 
inches. Signed and dated 1948. Coll.: Mrs. 
Mary Stothart, Santa Monica. Lit.: Paul 
Wescher, "Man Ray as Painter," Magazine 
of Art, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jan. 1953), pp. 
31-37 (illus. p. 36). 

Samuel Koch (born 1887), "Park Scene 
with Boats." Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Paul 
Wescher, Santa Monica (G. 57. 30. 2). Can- 
vas, h:26, w:32 inches. Signed. 

Frank London (1876-1945), "Song Sil- 
enced." Gift of Mrs. Frank M. London 
and Mr. Marsden London, Woodstock, 
New York (G. 57. 31.1). Canvas, h:56, 
w:443^ inches. Signed and dated 1938. 
Exhib.: Frank London, A Retrospective 
Showing of His Painting, Person Hall Art 
Gallery, Chapel Hill, 1947; North Carolina 
State Art Gallery, Raleigh, 1948. 

Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), "The 
Green Bridge." Gift of Mrs. Ferdinand 
Moller, Cologne (G.57.38.1). Canvas, 
h:493^, w:39^ inches. Signed and dated 

Russell W. Arnold (contemporary), 
"Painting No. 7." Purchase award (57.- 

42.1) . Canvas, h:70M, w:49 3 8 inches. 
Signed. Exhib.: North Carolina Artists' 
Annual Competition, North Carolina Mu- 
seum of Art, 1957 (cat. 2). 

William Congdon (born 1912), "Piazza, 
Venice." Gift of anonymous collector, 
Raleigh (G. 57. 34.1). Oil on masonite, 
h: 1 5 3^2, w:17 inches. Signed and dated 

C. S. Price (1874-1950), "Two Heads." 
Gift of W. R. Valentiner, Raleigh (G.57.- 

34.2) . Oil on board, h : 1 6, w:20 inches. 
Signed. Exhib.: C. S. Price, 1874-1950, 
A Memorial Exhibition, Seattle Art Mu- 
seum, 1951 (cat. 54). 

Richard Diebenkorn (born 1922), 
"Berkeley No. 8." Gift of W. R. Valen- 
tiner, Raleigh (G. 57. 34. 3). Oil on canvas, 
h:69, w:59 inches. Initialed and dated 54. 

John Grillo (born 1917), "Untitled." 
Gift of anonymous collector, Raleigh 
(G.57.34.4). Gouache, h:25, w:20 inches. 
Signed and dated 1949. 

Robert Motherwell (born 1915), "He de 
France." Gift of anonymous collector, 
Raleigh (G. 57. 34. 6). Water color on paper, 
h:7 3/g, w:10J4 inches. Signed. 

Robert Motherwell (born 1915), "Unti- 
tled." Gift of anonymous collector, Raleigh 
(G. 57. 34. 7). Paper, h:10} 2 , w:8 :5 , inches. 
Signed and dated 1945. 

Emerson Woelffer (contemporary), "The 
Sea." Gift of anonymous collector, Raleigh 
(G. 57. 34. 8). Oil and collage on canvas, 
h:36, w:29K inches. Signed. 

Ynez Johnston (born 1920), "Alpine 


Village." Gift of anonymous collector, 
Raleigh (G.57.34.10). Gouache, h:13^ 3 
w:20}2 inches. 

Benjamin Kopman (born 1887), "Head 
of a Girl." Gift of Mr. J. B. Neumann, 
New York (G.58.6.1). Water color, h:6^, 
w:43^ inches. Signed and dated 1956. 

Benjamin Kopman (born 1887), "Man 
Under a Tree." Gift of Mr. J. B. Neumann, 
New York (G.58.6.2). Water color, h:6V 2 , 
wA}/2 inches. Signed. 

Rico Lebrun (born Italy, 1900), "Sketch 
for the Crucifixion." Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
James B. Byrnes, Raleigh (G.57.37.1). Ink 
and wash on paper, h:ll, w:23 inches. 
Exhib.: Los Angeles County Museum, 1950 
cat. 25; Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
1951; M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco 1951. 

Homer Lee (contemporary), "The City." 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James B. Byrnes, 
Raleigh (G.57.37.2). Canvas, h:24, w:28 
inches. Exhib.; Los Angeles County Mu- 
seum, 1950. 

European Paintings 

Lodovico Carracci (Italian, 1555-1619), 
"The Assumption of the Virgin" (former 
loan). Gift of Mrs. J. L. Dorminy, Raleigh, 
in memory of her husband, J. L. Dorminy 
(GL. 57. 21.1). Canvas, h:96} 2 , w:53 inches. 
Coll.: Marquis of Abercorn. 

Hans Brosamer (German, about 1500- 
about 1554), "Portrait of a Gentleman," 
about 1520. Gift of Mrs. Arthur Lehman, 
New York (G.57.25.1). Panel, h:18^, w:12 
inches. Coll.: S. Neumans, Brussels; Arthur 
Lehman, New York. Exhib.: World's Fair, 
New York, 1939. Lit.: Charles L. Kuhn, 
A Catalogue of German Paintings of the Middle 
Ages and Renaissance in American Collections, 

* Only long-term loans are listed. 

Cambridge, 1936, p. 35, No. 27, PI. XVII; 
New York, World's Fair, European Paintings 
and Sculpture from 1300 to 7800, May-October 
1939, p. 14, No. 27. 

Master of San Miniato (Italian, late 15th 
century), "Madonna and Child." Gift of 
Mr. Howard Young, New York (G.57.26.1). 
Panel, h:38^4, w:22^2 inches. 

Isaac de Jouderville (Dutch, 1613-about 
1645), "A Laughing Young Man." Gift of 
Mr. Leon Medina, New York (G. 57. 27.1). 
Canvas, h:28, w:23 inches. Exhib.: Rem- 
brandt and His Pupils, North Carolina 
Museum of Art, 1956 (cat. 53). 

Jan Lievens (Dutch, 1607-1674), "Por- 
trait of a Man." Gift of Mr. Benjamin 
Katz, Dieren, Holland (G.57.28.1). Panel, 
h.\\9}/2, w:15 inches. 

"Portrait of Charles Fourier." French, 
19th century. Gift of Mr. W. E. Groves, 
New Orleans (G. 57. 39.1). Canvas, h:64^, 
w:51 34 inches. 

Max Pechstein (German, 1881-1955), 
"Boats." Gift of Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Levin, 
St. Louis (G. 57. 36.1). Water color on paper, 
h: 14^2, w:18 inches. Signed and dated 

Jean Helion (French, born 1904), 
"Untitled." Lent * by Miss Peggy Guggen- 
heim, Venice (L. 57. 40.1). Canvas, h:51, 
w:64 inches. Signed and dated on reverse, 

Paul van Somer (English, 1576-1621), 
"The Countess of Devonshire and Her 
Daughter," companion piece to the follow- 
ing work. Gift of Governor and Mrs. Luther 
Hartwell Hodges, Raleigh (G.58.3.1). Can- 
vas, h:51;H>, w:413^ inches. Signed and 
dated 1619. 

Paul van Somer (English, 1576-1621), 
"The Earl of Devonshire and His Son." 
Museum Purchase Fund (58.4.1). Canvas, 


h:5\}/2, w:413^2 inches. Signed and dated 

Govaert Flinck (Dutch, 1615-1660), "Self 
Portrait," companion piece to the follow- 
ing work. Museum Purchase Fund (58.4.2). 
Canvas, h:49, w:37 inches. Signed and 
dated 1646. 

Govaert Flinck (Dutch, 1615-1660), 
"Portrait of the Artist's Wife." Museum 
Purchase Fund (58.4.3). Canvas, h:49, 
w:37 inches. Signed and dated 1646. 

Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (Dutch, 
1621-1674), "Sketch for a Family Portrait." 
Museum Purchase Fund (58.4.4). Panel, 
h:14, w:173^ inches. Coll.: Dr. A. Meyers, 
Speyer, Germany. 

Marco Ricci (Italian, 1676-1729), "Girl 
on a Donkey and Young Man" (grisaille). 
Gift of Oscar and Jan Klein, New York 
(G.57.5.3). Oil on cardboard, h:6, w:5 


Claude Michel Clodion (French, 1738- 
1814), Relief Representing a Sacrifice to 
Bacchus. Museum Purchase Fund (58.- 
4.5). Bronze, h:8^i, w:20 inches. Dated 
1787. Coll.: Cardinal Rohan, Vienna; 
Michael Hall, Hollywood. 

Francesco Laurana (Italian, 1420-5- 
1502), "Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of 
Urbino." Museum Purchase Fund (58.4.6). 
Marble tondo, diam.:19?4 inches. Coll.: 
Melitta von Krumhaar, Vienna, 1932. 
Exhib.: Italian Sculpture, 1250-1500, De- 
troit Institute of Arts, 1938, No. 98. Lit.: 
Eric Maclaglan and Margaret H. Long- 
herst, Catalogue of Italian Sculpture, Victoria 
and Albert Museum, 1932, p. 124, No. 

* Only long-term loans are listed. 

Giovanni da Bologna (Italian, 1524- 
1608), "The Bird Catcher." Gift in honor 
of Mrs. James L. Fleming, Greenville, by 
her children (G. 58. 5.1). Bronze, h:10M 

Francesco da San Gallo (Italian, 1494- 
1576), "Hercules and Cerberus." Gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Hall, Lumberton 
(G. 58.1.1). Bronze, h:5 3 4 inches. 

Tino da Camaino (Sienese, 14th cen- 
tury), "Madonna and Child." Gift of Dr. 
W. R. Valentiner, Raleigh (G. 57. 34.1 1 ). 
Marble relief, h:18, w:153^ inches. 

Knight on Horseback with Lance. 
French, about 1700. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur L. Erlanger, New York (G. 57. 41.1). 
Bronze, h:113 2 , w:16 ] 2 inches. 

Bacchus. Greece, 2nd or 3rd century 
B. C. Lent * by Dr. and Mrs. John D. 
Humber, San Francisco (L. 58. 2.1). Marble, 
h:66 inches. Coll.: Pierpont Morgan, New 

Bust of General von Steuben. American 
(?), 18th century. Gift of Mr. Leon Medina, 
New York (G. 57. 24. 2). Terra cotta, h:27, 
w:23 inches. 

Robert A. Howard (American, con- 
temporary), "Landscape II." Purchase 
award (57.42.2). Bronze, h:13j 2 , w:18^ 
inches. Exhib.: North Carolina Artists' 
Annual Competition, North Carolina Mu- 
seum of Art, 1957 (cat. 54). 

Benvenuto Cellini (Italian, 1500-1571), 
"Neptune." About 1500. Gift of Mr. and 
Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, Jr., Raleigh (GL.- 
57.11.12). Former loan. Bronze, h:9^2 

Buddha on horseback — "The Great De- 
parture." Indian Hellenistic (Gandhara), 
first to second century A. D. (GL. 57. 14.44). 
Bas relief in stone, h:10, w:10^2 inches. 

Archaic god (painted). Greek, sixth 


century B. C. (GL.57. 14.45). Terra cotta, 
h:13^4 inches. 

Satyr. Greek, 4th century B. C. (GL.- 
57.14.46). Terra cotta, h:3}4 inches. 

Sphinx with hippopotamus body. Egyp- 
tian (Ptolemaic), 323-33 B. C. (GL.57.- 
14.47). Terra cotta, h:l ! 4, 1:3 inches. 

Standing Woman. Greek (Tanagra), 4th 
century B. C. (GL.57. 14.48). Terra cotta 
with polychrome, h:5, w:2 inches. 

Pallas Athene. Greek (Tanagra), 4th 
century B. C. (GL.57. 14.49) . Terra cotta, 
11:5 32 inches. Coll.: Dikran Kelekian, Paris. 

Seated woman. Greek (Tanagra), 4th 
century B. C. (GL.57. 14. 50). Terra cotta, 
h:7 inches. 

Kneeling horse. Egyptian (Ptolemaic), 
323-33 B. C. (GL.57. 14. 51). Limestone, 
h:3} 2 , w; 3 inches. Coll.: Dikran Kelekian, 

The above gifts (former loans) of Dr. 
and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, Con- 

Mark Toby (American, born 1890), 
"Calligraphic III." Gift of anonymous 
collector, Raleigh (G. 57. 34. 5). Monoprint, 
h:17 :5 4, w:ll 3 4 inches. Signed and dated 

Harry Bertoia (American, contempo- 
rary), "Untitled" (monoprint). Gift of 
anonymous collector, Raleigh (G. 57. 34. 9). 
Board, h:9%, w:\2% inches. Signed. 

Decorative Arts and Others 

Tapestry Showing Two Women Con- 
versing. Flemish, 17th century. Gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. Burrows McNeir, New Bern 
(G. 57. 20.2). H:90, w:106 inches. 

Collection of antique laces and textiles. 

French, Italian, Spanish, Austrian, Persian, 
and Chinese. Anonymous gift (G. 57.23. - 

Prayer Rug. Turkish, about 1800. Gift 
of Mr. and Mrs. W. Lunsford Long, War- 
renton (G.57.32.1). H:803^, w:47 inches. 

Two Large Chandeliers. American, 19th 
century. Gift of Miss Elizabeth Dortch, 
Raleigh, in memory of Dr. Thomas Deve- 
reux Hogg (1823-1904) (G.57.35.1-.2). 
Exhib.: Crystal Palace, London Exhibition 
of 1851. 

Small Chandelier with Warriors of East- 
ern Nations. American, 19th century. Gift 
of Miss Elizabeth Dortch, Raleigh, in 
memory of Miss Sally Hogg (1850-1918) 

Small Chandelier with Glass Globe. 
American, 19th century. Gift of Miss 
Elizabeth Dortch, Raleigh, in memory of 
Miss Sally Dortch (1876-1951) (G.57.35.4). 

Small Chandelier. American, 19th cen- 
tury. Gift of Miss Elizabeth Dortch, Raleigh 

Sampler or book cover. Mexican, 19th 
century. Gift of Miss Elizabeth Dortch, 
Raleigh (G. 57. 35. 6). Needlepoint embroid- 
ery, h:153^, w:21 inches. 

Flowered silk brocade panel. French, 
early 18th century. Gift of Mrs. Athol C. 
Burnham, Chapel Hill (G.57.43.1). H:54, 
w: 18 x /2 inches. 


Collection of sixteen textiles. Peruvian 
(lea?), about 1300-1438 A. D. Found in 
grave between Huaco and Lima. Gift of 
Mr. G. Dent Mangum, Jr., Raleigh (G.58.- 




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Officers and Board of Directors of the State Art Society 

Governor Luther H. Hodges Honorary President 

Mr. Robert Lee Humber President 

Mr. Edwin Gill Vice-President 

Mrs. May Davis Hill Secretary 

Mrs. James H. Cordon Treasurer 

Vice-Presidents at Large Elected 

Mrs. Frank Taylor Dr. Clarence Poe 

Mrs. Jacques Busbee Mrs. Isabelle Henderson 

Mr. John V. Allcott Dr. Clemens Sommer 

Mr. Egbert L. Davis, Jr. 

Appointed by the Governor Mr. Henry L. Bridges 

Dr. Sylvester Green Mr. Gregory Ivy 

Mrs. Charles Cannon Mrs. J. H. B. Moore 

Mr. Ralph C. Price Mr. Edwin Gill 

Ex Officio 

Hon. Luther H. Hodges Governor of North Carolina 

Dr. Charles M. Carroll State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Mr. George B. Patton Attorney General 

Mrs. C. B. Clegg Art Chairman, North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs 

Staff of the Museum 

Dr. W. R. Valentiner Director 

James B. Byrnes Associate Director 

Ben F. Williams Curator 

Charles W. Stanford, Jr Curator of Education 

May Davis Hill Librarian, Registrar and Curator of Prints 

William T. Beckwith Budget Officer 

Peggy Jo Kirby Secretary to Director 

Peggy Noblin Secretary 

Edith Johnson Sales Desk 

William A. Weathersby Library Assistant 

Frank L. Manly Museum Technician 

Branton L. Olive Packer and Shipper 

James R. Hampton Head Museum Guard 


Hours: Open Tuesdays through Saturdays 10-5; Sundays 2-6; Closed Mondays and 
legal holidays. 

Telephone: TE 4-3611, Ext. 7569. 

Tours: May be scheduled upon advance written request. 

Membership in the North Carolina State Art Society: Annual $5.00; Contributor 
$10.00; Sustaining $25.00; Patron $50.00; Life $100.00; Donor $500.00; Benefactor 

All gifts to the Museum, whether of objects or money, are tax deductible. Names of 
donors are permanently attached to objects purchased with donated funds. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art 




Permit No. 453 

North Carolina State Library 
Technical Service Division 
Box 2839 

Raleigh, N. C. 4 tfopie* 





New Sculpture Acquisitions 

I. Four Gandharan Sculptures 2 

By Roy C. Craven, Jr. 

II. A Pair of Pre-Columbian Figures 10 

III. Madonna and Child Relief by Tino da Camaino 13 

IV. "Portrait of Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino," Marble Relief 

by Laurana 15 

V. A Relief by Benedetto Briosco, Active in Lombardy From 1483 to 1506. . 17 

VI. "Hercules," Bronze Statuette by Francesco da San Gallo 19 

VII. "The Bird Catcher" by Giovanni da Bologna 22 

VIII. A Bronze Plaque by Clodion 23 

By W. R. Valentiner 

IX. Bronze Statuette of Daniel Webster by Thomas Ball 28 

Checklist of Additional Sculptures in the North Carolina Museum of Art 30 

By May Davis Hill 

The Life of Agostino Cornacchini by Francesco Maria Niccolb Gabburri 37 

Edited By Herbert Keutner 

Registrar's Report of New Acquisitions 43 

Cover: Giovanni da Bologna (Italian, 1524-1608), The Bird Catcher. Bronze, height 10% 
inches. Gift in honor of Mrs. James L. Fleming, Greenville, by her children. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin is published quarterly. Copyright, 1957, by the North Carolina Museum 
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It has been said that every great man leaves a legacy to enrich mankind. 
William R. Valentiner fulfilled in plentitude this dictum. He was one of 
humanity's gifted sons. 

His passing on September the sixth impoverished the art world of an 
historic figure and the North Carolina Museum of Art of its cherished leader 
and friend. 

His life was dedicated to art. In the domain of letters he was an artist 
in words. His knowledge of universal art was unrivalled in this generation. 
He was the author of over thirty volumes and eight hundred articles in his 
chosen field. His scholarly attainments are his ageless memorials and his 
credentials of immortality. 

Yet he led an active life of executive responsibility, embracing a full half- 
century, as Curator of Decorative Arts at the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art in New York City, and as director of the Institute of Arts in Detroit, 
the Los Angeles County Museum in Los Angeles, the J. Paul Getty Museum 
in Santa Monica, and the North Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh. Under 
his guidance were trained some of the most eminent museum directors of our 

He had a genius for discovering masterpieces lost through the centuries 
to art historians. Many a museum in America and Europe has been enriched 
by his intuitive excursions into the treasure houses of the Continent and by 
his remarkable finds. How appropriate that his last great discovery, made 
during his recent trip to Europe, should have been a portrait by Rembrandt. 

Dr. Valentiner was sought by art patrons throughout the world for attribu- 
tions to authenticate works of art, by scholars for his rare judgment in ap- 
praising the timeless qualities of a masterpiece, and by art lovers in every 
land because he inspired them through his writings to love beauty and to 
feel the spiritual uplift of an artist's dream reduced to canvas or carved in 

William R. Valentiner symbolized an epoch, the greatest fifty years yet 
known in museum history, and North Carolina is proud and grateful to 
have had his services as the first director of its State Museum of Art. 

Robert Lee Humber, President 

The North Carolina State Art Society 


By Roy C. Craven, Jr. 

Four pieces of sculpture in the museum 
collection, gifts of Dr. and Mrs. Fred 
Olsen, come from the great meeting ground 
of eastern and western cultures, Gandhara. 
This area, originally located in what is 
now northern Pakistan and southern 
Afganistan, has had a fascinating history. 

In 326 B.C. Alexander the Great crossed 
the Indus River and arrived in Taxila, the 
chief city of Gandhara. Five years later 
he was dead and the great Hindu ruler, 
Chandragupta, began consolidating India 
into a great empire. The Macedonian hold 
on northern India would be completely 
ended within thirty years, but western 
influences were to be long felt. 

Around 250 B.C., following the passing 
of Chandragupta's grandson, Asoka, and 
the wane of Mauryan influence, the Bac- 
trian Greeks dominated Gandhara, and 
in 190 B.C. Demetrius I conquered the 
Indus Valley. Forty years later the famous 
Greek king, Menander, became a Buddhist 
convert, and the Bactrian Greeks were 
firmly settled in northern India for the 
remainder of the second century B.C. 
Eventually they were overpowered, first 
from the north by the Scythians, who 
were being forced southward by the Mon- 
gols, who finally arrived on the scene in 
the late first century A.D. 

The most decisive invasion of the area 
came around 65 A.D. when the Mongols 
pushed into India and established the 
great Kusana Empire, which would last 
four hundred years. Around 500 A.D., 

1 Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, History of Indian and 
Indonesian Art (London, Goldston, 1927), p. 52. 

however, it was extinguished, and its 
centers and monasteries were destroyed by 
the famous invasion of White Huns. 

Tempered by a Hellenic climate, Gand- 
hara produced for several hundred years 
a half Indian, half Greco-Roman style of 
sculpture unique in Buddhist art. Accord- 
ing to Coomaraswamy, "The Gandhara 
School of Graeco-Buddhist sculpture may 
date from the First Century B.C. . . . and 
continues an abundant production on into 
the Third and Fourth Centuries (A.D.), 
with increasing Indianization both there 
and in Kashmir." 1 

The four examples of Gandharan sculp- 
ture with which we are concerned were 
probably executed during the reign of 
King Kaniska (ca. 78-123 A.D.). During ! 
this high point of the Kusana Empire the 
land routes were again opened to the West, 
and Kaniska even sent an embassy to 
Rome, in 99 A.D., to visit Trajan. Thus 
it is not strange to see a strong Roman 
influence in Kusana art, and this is even 
more understandable when we know that 
itinerant Roman sculptors were working 
in Gandhara at this same time. 

Carved from the beautiful grey slate 
which was the distinctive medium of the ; 
Gandharan sculptors from the first to third 
centuries A.D., all four pieces could be 
said to have a strong Indianized look or 
mode. This, perhaps, can be explained by! 
the fact that a closer liaison with the south- 
ern portion of the Empire and school at 
Mathura (modern Muttra) had been estab- 
lished. Also the Gandhara style was never 
a Greek style, but a style strongly influenced 


Fig. 1. "Buddha With Two Disciples" (Conversion of Nanda?). India (Gandhara), ca. 78-123 
A.D. Slate, 11 x 11^2 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

by Roman sculpture of the first and second 
centuries. The term "Greco-Buddhist" is 
widely used in reference to Gandhara, but 
there was never any art created in the 
area showing Greek influence save the 
coins struck by the Bactrian kingdoms 
prior to the great Buddhist activity. The 
Gandharan style was only a phase of 
Hellenistic development, tempered by an 
alien soil into a product of its own time 
and region. 

An interesting parallel can be seen 
between the Gandharan sculptures and 
the stucco grave figures of Palmyra in 
Asia Minor. The startling resemblance 
between these two far-removed schools is 
even more remarkable when one realizes 
that the Palmyran works were created in 
an area which might be considered the 
Hellenic backyard, while the Gandharan 
pieces came into being in a world twice 
removed from the true Greco-Roman 
cultural experience. 

The main element which is similar in 
both styles is the full and fluted drapery 
of the costumes which is clearly an element 
derived from Roman sculpture of the 
Flavian period. 2 This device is also to be 
seen in many other areas of the Middle 
East and Europe and the Romanesque 
sculptures of southern France and Italy 
come immediately to mind — but how much 
later they were executed! 

This brings us to our first example from 
the Museum (Fig. 1), which originally was 
part of a larger frieze depicting episodes 
from the life of Buddha. This piece probably 
once existed as a formal unit designed as 
two rooms flanking a central niche con- 
taining a figure of Buddha. In its broken 

2 For a discussion of Roman influences on Gandhara, 
see Benjamin Rowland, The Art and Architecture of India 
(Baltimore, Pelican, 1953), pp. 69-84. 

state we see a defaced, haloed figure of 
Buddha seated upon a throne in an archi- 
tectural setting. The compartment to our 
left has been broken off, but we can safely 
assume that it also housed, as does the 
remaining room to our right, figures turned 
toward Buddha in a worshipful attitude. 
The figure to the left of the room is male and 
appears to be a noble, and the female figure 
to the right also seems to be a personage of 
wealth, as evidenced by her elaborate head- 
dress and ankle jewelry. Columns sur- 
mounted by Corinthian-like capitals sup- 
port the roof and close in the couple below, 
while above the roof three heavenly 
"Apsaras" flourish lotus blossoms. Sur- 
mounting the whole piece and functioning, 
no doubt, as a unifying device for the 
complete architectural frieze is a decorative 
floral pattern which echoes strong western 

The Buddha is holding in his left hand 
his alms bowl, and his right arm, which is 
broken off at the wrist, is held aloft, either 
in support of some object or in the per- 
formance of a hand gesture or "Mudra." 
A folding stool stands in front of the throne, 
supporting five unidentified objects. 

The work's fragmentary condition makes 
it extremely difficult to identify the event 
originally depicted. However, one subject 
is strongly suggested by the remaining 
elements, and that is the conversion of 
Buddha's half brother Nanda. 

When Gautama had achieved enlighten- 
ment and had taught his first sermon, he, 
with his followers, returned to his father's 
kingdom where he converted his half 
brother and son to the faith. Many Gand- 
haran sculptures of similar format portray 
this scene of the conversion of Nanda to 
the monkhood. The Buddha is always 


shown presenting his alms bowl and cloak 
to his brother in the presence of courtiers 
and monks, while above the scene heavenly 
figures rejoice for the occasion. We could 
be more certain of the work's subject if it 
were not for the missing hand and the 
disquieting still life on the folding stool, 
since the remaining details of the alms 
bowl, courtiers, and Apsaras are standard 
embellishments to the scene of conversion. 

One is tempted to say that the objects 
on the stool might be symbols for the five 
commandments, which are basic to the 
code of monks as well as the lay order. A 
further possibility is that they are the Pan- 
catattva, or the "five forbidden" or "five 
good things," of the Tantra, which is only 
a step removed from the commandments. 
These answers seem even more attractive 
when we remember that Buddha's half 
brother was converted to the monkhood 
on the eve of his marriage, and the inclusion 
of the five things of symbolic ritual would 
be quite appropriate in a scene depicting 
the event. 

The fact that most Tantric literature is 
dated after 300 A.D. would negate the 
Tantric part of the theory and would tend 
to push the date of our sculpture far past 
the reign of King Kaniska, which ended 
in 123 A.D. We do know, however, that 
many Tantric ideas prevailed prior to their 
codification in a set group of scriptures, 
and the "Greater Vehicle" had already 
welcomed many of them. 

In regard to style, this piece is the most 
"finished" of the four Gandharan sculp- 
tures in the Museum and appears to be 
the one displaying the least amount of 
Indianization with the exception of our 

3 Heinrich Zimmer, The Art of Indian Asia (New 
York, Pantheon, 1955) I, 346. 

next example, the great departure. 

This episode (Fig. 2), which is easier to 
identify, shows us the Prince Siddhartha 
departing from his father's kingdom by 
night to commence his monastic search for 
Buddhahood. Still dressed in his royal 
garments and jewelry, and aided by a 
heavenly host, the prince effects his escape, 
mounted upon his famous charger 

On either side of the riding prince we see 
a standing figure. One of these is undoubt- 
edly Chandaka, the prince's groom, who 
is always shown accompanying him, while 
the badly damaged figure to our right is 
impossible to identify. It is possible, how- 
ever, that he may have at one time carried 
an umbrella, the honorific Oriental symbol 
of royalty. 

Because the view of our scene is frontal, 
rather than in profile, our piece shows the 
kings of the four heavens who, in many 
profile works, support Kanthaka's feet away 
from the ground, hovering above the action 
while below a single Deva is shown, sup- 
porting a hoof in each hand. 

We can easily see that the style here 
and in the two remaining pieces is not as 
finished nor as competent as we have 
observed in our first example, the possible 
conversion of Nanda. These "shorthand" 
pieces must have been designed to occupy 
positions of less importance on the build- 
ings, far removed from close scrutiny. "They 
were mass-produced in unpretentious skilled 
workshops, operating on a large scale and 
with as much speed as possible, to provide 
numerous and extensive monasteries, stupas, 
and other buildings with a lavish mantle 
of friezes, panels, statues, and sculptured 
ornaments." 3 

This "shorthand" style is even more 


Fig. 3. "Avalokitesvara, Lord of Mercy." India (Gandhara), ca. 78-123 A.D. Slate, 5 x 25 inches 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

Fig. 4. "Bodhisattva." India (Gandhara), ca. 78-123 A.D. Slate, 8^ x 8^ inches. Gift of Dr 
and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

marked in our next example (Fig. 3) 
which by shape and design suggests that 
it might originally have served as a door 
lintel. The elongated horizontal slab of 
blue slate describes a shallow rectangle 
containing a seated Buddha centered be- 
tween eight male figures who are clothed 
in the royal garments of the period. Each 
figure displays a characteristic hand gesture 
of its own which gives the quiet and formal 
composition an air of action and suspense. 
At the extreme ends of the panel are 
displayed stylized trees, while above each 
shoulder of the Buddha appears a rounded 
nebulous form which could be lotus blos- 
soms or symbolic representations of the bo 
tree. The Buddha holds a lotus bud in his 
left hand. 

The scene depicted appears to be the 
one dealing with the supplicant gods who 
have come to earth to beg the Buddha to 
share his knowledge of salvation with all 
beings. Following his temptation and en- 
lightenment, the Buddha remained under 
the bo tree debating the virtue of revealing 
his pathway to Nirvana. Only after Brahma 
had descended from heaven with other 
gods to plead with him did Buddha 
acquiesce to preach the law to man. 

This work with its brief and direct 
carving is contained or exists within a kind 
of vital geometry which makes it attractive 
to the modern eye. Its execution seems to 
have required so little time that a vital 
description of space has emerged with a 
primitive freshness which is lacking in the 
more finished and carefully planned works. 
The fact that such a "shorthand" style 
was tolerated might be explained by the 
fact that few of the Gandharan sculptures 
ever escaped the violation of stucco, poly- 
chrome and gold leaf finishes. 

We come now to our last and what seems 
to be our most interesting sculpture (Fig. 4). 

A seated figure of Buddha is again shown 
under a tree, but this time it is not a true 
Buddha, but rather a Buddha-to-be — a 
Bodhisattva. To be exact, we see here the 
young Gautama as a monk, fresh from his 
father's palace, and still unenlightened, 
performing Yogaistic austerities in pursuit 
of salvation. The fasting Buddha-to-be is 
seated on an elevated platform, the kind 
built around the base of holy trees, while 
two ascetics stand on either side in a wor- 
shipful attitude. The figure to our left is 
typical of the Sadhu with his long and 
matted beard and coiled hair, while the 
figure on the right has the startling mood 
and bearing of some of the Bodhisattvas 
which decorate the caves of a thousand 
Buddhas in western China at Tunhwang. 
This small and briefly stated figure is an 
interesting footnote to the flow of religious 
and cultural ideas along the silk routes 
between China and northern India. 

The Buddha-to-be was to reduce himself 
almost to a skeleton before realizing that 
salvation could not be obtained through 
austerities. He thus renounced asceticism 
and resolved to reach the truth by means 
of the intellect. This concept of a holy 
mendicant mortifying the fleshly body to 
perceive wisdom gravitates toward Brah- 
maism and the Indian idea of oblivion to 
the self or ego. It is true that Buddhism 
springs from Brahmaism, but one of the 
main concepts of Mahayana Buddhism was 
to be the revelation of the human-deity 
aspects of the Buddha. This was especially 
true in Gandhara, for there the narrative 
of the Buddha's existence came into being, 
tempered by the practical realism of the 


The emphasis in Gandharan sculpture 
was always on reality and the factual, 
rather than toward the mystical world of 
the Indian mind. Here the realistic situa- 
tion could be recorded with ease, but the 
ascetic concept remained alien to the 
craftsmen, who were known to carve with 
more sympathy scenes of drinking parties 
and other genre subjects. 

After the invasion of the White Huns 
around 500 A.D., all art ceased in the 
Peshawar Valley, but lingered on in 
Kashmir and Afghanistan. As late as 700 
A.D. the so-called second school of Gand- 
hara was producing romantic and senti- 
mental stucco and terra cotta works in 
Hadda and Fondukistan. But the true 
epoch of Buddhism and Buddhist art was 
over in northern India and would remain 
buried in the dust of dramatic history until 
the nineteenth century, when they would 
once again be brought forth to reflect the 
mystery and excitement of the days when 
eastern and western cultures had met and 

Short Bibliography 

Ashton, Sir L. (ed.), The Art of India and 
Pakistan: the Commemorative Catalogue of the 
Exhibition Held at the Royal Academy of Art, 
London, 1947-8. New York: Coward- 
McCann, n.d. 

Coomaraswamy, A. The Dance of Shiva, 
revised edition. New York: The Noonday 
Press, 1957. 

Coomaraswamy, A. Hinduism and Buddhism. 

New York: The Philosophical Library, 

Coomaraswamy, A. History of Indian and 
Indonesian Art. London: Edw. Goldston, 

Coomaraswamy, A. 77^ Transformation of 
Nature in Art. Cambridge (Mass.): Harv- 
ard University Press, 1935. 

Foucher, A. L 'Art Greco— Bouddhique du Gand- 
hdra. 2 Vols. Paris: Ecole Francaise 
d'Extreme Orient, 1905-18. 

Grousset, R. Civilizations of the East, Vol. 2: 
India. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931. 

Humphreys, Christmas. Buddhism. Middle- 
sex: Penguin, 1952. 

Rowland, Benjamin. The Art and Archi- 
tecture of India. Baltimore: Pelican, 1953. 

Thomas, P. Epics, Myths and Legends of 
India. 2nd ed. Bombay: D. B. Tarapore- 
vala, n.d. 

Zimmer, H. The Art of Indian Asia. 2 Vols. 
New York: Pantheon, 1955. 

Zimmer, H. Myths and Symbols in Indian 
Civilization. New York: Pantheon, 1946. 

Zimmer, H. Philosophies of India. New 
York. Pantheon, 1951. 

Mr. Craven is a member of the faculty of the 
Department of Art, University of Florida, 



Among the most recent gifts to the 
Museum is a handsome pair of Pre-Colum- 
bian figures, representing a warrior and his 
wife, presented by Mr. and Mrs. S. J. 
Levin of St. Louis, Missouri. 

Dating from the period between 500 and 
1300 A.D., these fine examples by an 
early artist-potter were excavated in the 

Warrior and Wife. Mexico (Nayarit), 500-1300 
and Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. Louis. 

western part of Mexico in the State of 

Somewhat larger than average, each of 
the figures measures twenty-one inches in 
height. Both demonstrate the artist's inten- 
tion to express the portrait features of the 
original person with whom these hollow 
sculptures would have been buried. The 

.D. Terra cotta, height 21 inches. Gift of Mr. 



rest of the figurative elements are stylized, 
almost symbolic caricatures of the model. 
However, there are practical as well as 
aesthetic reasons for the seeming distortion 
of these elements; the enlarged feet are 
necessary to support the standing weight 
of the figure, whereas the diminutive arms 
and hands suggest the action without 
interfering with the sculptural unity. Judg- 
ing from the total ensemble, one can see 
that the Nayarit people must have enjoyed 
a rather sophisticated philosophy of life, 
since most of their expressive sculptural 
work has strong overtones of the humorous. 
The larger groups of funerary objects found 

in the region consist of group games, singing 
or playing groups, plump young animals, 
and a host of other everyday and genre 
material. All are skillfully modeled, yet 
each seems to have been created in a light- 
hearted, jovial state of mind. The art work 
of these western Mexican-Indian groups is 
almost unique with respect to this humor, 
and certainly it contrasts strongly with the 
ritualistic brutality evidenced in the art of 
their earlier neighbors to the south and east. 

It is the Museum's hope that additional 
examples of the art of the so-called primitive 
cultures will be added to the collection. 

J. B. B. 




The Museum has been fortunate enough 
to receive an excellent example of the 
work of the Italian sculptor, Tino da 
Camaino (ca. 1285-1337), as a gift of Dr. 
W. R. Valentiner. It is a fragment, nearly 
complete, of a marble relief representing 
the Madonna with the Christ Child 
(Fig. 1). The entire composition occupies 

a roundel or soft square incised in a rec- 
tangle. The Child makes the blessing 
gesture with His right hand, while in His 
left He holds a bird, whose head is missing. 
This is a somewhat larger bird than the 
goldfinch which is so often represented in 
the hand of the Christ Child. Sitting on 
His Mother's arm and supported by her 

Fig. 2. Tino da Camaino, Madonna and Child. Kress Collection, New York. 



hands beneath His left leg and right fore- 
arm, the Child has an upward swing in 
the lines of His figure — one knee is actually 
higher than the other. This lyric quality, 
together with the placement of the large 
bird well to the right of the group, con- 
tributes to the rounded outlines of the 
composition, fitting it into the contour of its 
setting. A contrasting angularity in the 
design of the central section reminds one 
strongly of contemporary abstract compo- 
sitions. The relief is complete except for the 
upper part of the Mother's head including 
the eyes and a portion of the left side and 
upper right corner. 

A similar group by Tino is a part of the 
Kress Collection in New York (Fig. 2). 
It is set in a rounded, dentil-lined circle 
from which it appears to spill out at the 
bottom and shows the figures in much the 
same relationship as our own group. This 
time the Mother supports the Child at 
His waist and beneath His right foot, but 
the effect of delicate balance and upward 

sweep is present here, as in the Museum's 
example. He holds a book in His left hand 
while blessing with His right. The Virgin 
is crowned and veiled. 

Both reliefs show the emphasis which 
Tino, although born and trained in Siena, 
placed on the form of the body beneath 
the folds of the garments. This is true of 
the Kress example, even though the relief 
here is somewhat shallower in the lower 
portion where the figures flow across the 
border of the roundel. Especially striking 
is the similarity of type in the faces of both 
pairs of figures, particularly the lips and 
chin of the Child and the rounded jaw of 
the Mother. The same French Gothic 
grace of line which Tino, a pupil of Gio- 
vanni Pisano, brought from Siena and 
Pisa to the Angevin court at Naples is 
evident in each composition and serves as 
a leavening agent to the increasingly 
Italian corporeality of the figures. 

M. D. H. 


Marble Relief by Laurana 

Laurana's male portraits are less known 
than his female busts, which have been 
the pride of the greatest American col- 
lectors since the beginning of the twentieth 
century (Frick, Mellon, Rockefeller). Yet, 
in recent times several male portraits in 
relief and bust form have turned up, 
(some as companion pieces of famous 
female portraits) which prove that Laurana, 
in spite of the delicate touch of his Sla- 
vonian art, was as capable in characterizing 
men as women. 

Francesco Laurana was born in Zara, 
Dalmatia, about 1430, was educated in 
Venice, and worked in Central Italy as 
well as in Naples and Sicily and later in 
France. Federigo of Urbino (1422-82) must 
have asked him about 1475 to come to his 
court, where he sculptured a portrait bust 
of his wife Battista Sforza (now in the 
Museo Nazionale, Florence). Two reliefs 
of the Duke and the Duchess by Laurana 
are now in the Museum at Pesaro, and a 
relief portrait of the Duke alone is in the 
Museo Nazionale, Florence. To this must 
be added the marble relief recently acquired 
by the North Carolina Museum of Art. 

No one could equal Laurana in the 
refinement of technique, the smooth sur- 
face, the fine spacing of his relief figures 

within the frame and the exquisite lettering 
surrounding them. What Lionello Venturi 
stressed as characteristic of the artist, the 
smooth roundness of his forms and the 
cubic construction of the heads, occurs 
also in our relief portrait, where the circular 
outline is repeated in the silhouette of the 
head and face, as well as in the neck and 

The Duke of Urbino, one of the most 
famous rulers of the early Renaissance, was 
no less remarkable as condottiere than as 
art patron, and is known from other por- 
traits executed in medals and in paintings; 
best known are those by Piero della 
Francesca and Justus van Gent. They all 
show him in left profile, as he had lost 
his right eye in a tournament. The wound 
he had received had also affected his nose 
which shows a deep cut at the bridge. 
In spite of this, the determination of his 
strong character is clearly brought out. 

(Our relief was first exhibited in the 
Exhibition, Italian Sculpture from 1200- 
1500, held at the Detroit Institute of Arts 
in 1938, catalogue No. 98. For Laurana's 
portrait busts of women see the Art Quarterly, 
Autumn 1942.) 

W. R. V. 



Active in Lombardy From 1483 to 1506 

One of the triumphs of Italian Renais- 
sance art is the exquisite decoration in 
marble on church facades and on the 
interiors of churches and private palaces. 
Some of the marble sculptors like Francesco 
di Simone, Giuliano di San Gallo, and 
Christoforo Romano are often better in 
their decorative work than in isolated 
figural compositions. Especially in North 
Italy, where the personalities in sculpture 
were less pronounced than in Florence and 
Siena, decorative sculpture reached a high 
point of perfection. There the best known 
example of the early Renaissance is the 
Certosa near Pavia, where the fagade of the 
church and every early altar and tomb 
inside is done in the most exquisite orna- 
mental design, worked out in marble with 
an unbelievable ease and skill. The leading 
artist there, after Amadeo had left, was 
Benedetto Briosco, who executed a series 
of the finest facade reliefs as well as the 
tomb of Gian Galeazzo Visconti with its 
large standing Madonna in the arch at 
the top. 

We can attribute to him the excellent 

marble frieze (Fig. 1), perhaps intended 
for a mantlepiece, which the Museum of 
Art has recently acquired. It obviously 
represents a classical allegory with opti- 
mistic import, perhaps Apollo on one end 
and Venus as Fertility on the other end; 
Apollo accompanied by the cupids with 
torches, one of the torches held by a three- 
headed dog (Cerberus?); Venus sitting in 
a chariot drawn by two swans, one of which 
has fallen and is studied with interest by 
an owl. 

What it represents is not so important 
as the remarkable execution of the lively 
moving figures, which are placed on a 
widely spaced background in a fine staccato 
rhythm. While the figures are raised to a 
full relief, the other parts of the ornaments 
—the tree with bow and quiver in the 
center, the festoons attached to the upper 
border — are less raised and their outlines 
disappear in the background with softness 
and finesse. The details are full of precise 
observation, the drapery of Apollo, the 
Cerberus dog who, like a terrier, jumps at 
the cupid, grasping him on his hip, the 

Fig. 1. Benedetto Briosco (Italian, active Lombardy, 1483-1506), Marble Relief, 13 x 47 inches. 
Museum Purchase Fund. 


swans and the amusing owl, and the deli- 
cately modelled Venus with her twisted 

Works by Benedetto Briosco are rare in 
our country. There is in Detroit an angel's 
head which he executed (Fig. 2), and 
which was given to our artist while it was 
still in the Trivulzio collection, Milan. 
With its long curly hair, it can be compared 
to the Apollo in our relief. 

Benedetto Briosco's work on the Milan 

cathedral began in 1483; his famous statue 
of Saint Agnes shows that in his early 
period he was influenced by the better- 
known Amadeo. Later, when he created 
our relief, he was nearer to Christoforo 
Romano, the friend of Isabella d'Este, who 
also participated in the Certosa decorations. 
Briosco worked at the Certosa from 1491 
to 1500, and in his later period at the 
cathedral of Cremona (1506). 

W. R. V. 

Fig. 2. Benedetto Briosco, Head of an Angel. 
Detroit Institute of Arts. 




Bronze Statuette By Francesco da San Gallo 

The bronze statuette (Fig. 1) which has 
recently been presented to the Museum by 
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Hall can be 
attributed to Francesco da San Gallo 
(1494-1576), son of the famous architect 
Giuliano da San Gallo, as it agrees stylisti- 
cally with the Hercules of the Clarence H. 
Mackay collection. (Cat. No. 21; Fig. 2). 
Although of much smaller compass, the 
proportions and emaciated forms of the 
body as well as the contraposto of arms 
and legs are very similar. Also, character- 
istic for the artist is the fact that the surface 
of the bronze is not carefully chiselled, 
but as in most bronzes by this artist left 
in the rough state in which it came out of 
the furnace. We feel in both instances the 
terra cotta model underneath the bronze, 
which is cast with the "lost wax" (cire 
perdu) process and therefore exists in only 
one example. The sketchy treatment of the 
surface, which results in the flickering light 
thrown on prominent sections of the body, 
gives to the statuette a modern look, 
reminding us of works of the time of Rodin, 
especially as the outlines have the sharply 
etched character of an Impressionist bronze. 

Francesco da San Gallo belongs among 
the mannerist sculptors who appeared 
during Michelangelo's lifetime; they tried 
in vain to emulate the great master, distort- 
ing his ideas but also adding new elements 
to the High Renaissance style — elements 
which point frequently to a far-off future. 
These artists, with their warped person- 
alities, have been of special interest in 
recent studies. We learn that Francesco da 
San Gallo as a boy was taken by his father 

to Rome where he studied in the company 
of Michelangelo the newly discovered 
Hellenistic statue of Laocoon. This statue, 
which was copied by several of the manner- 
ists, must have made a lifelong impression 
on Francesco. All his compositions show 
very deep suffering, expressed in the 
twisted contortion of the bodies, although 
instead of the dramatic force of the Laocoon 

Fig. 2. Francesco da San Gallo, Hercules. Col- 
lection of Clarence H. Mackay. Bronze, height 
1 5 3^ inches. 


we find in his figures an elegiac resignation 
to their destiny. Even Hercules, with all 
his strength which he preserves in his 
worn-out muscular body, appears languid 
in his attitude and almost sad and senti- 
mental in the expression of his face. 

Francesco da San Gallo was a remarkable 
portrait sculptor — one of his best busts is 

the one of Giovanni della Buonde Nere in 
the Museo Nazionalc, Florence — but even 
here we observe the melancholic and often 
morose features which are characteristic of 
works of the "lost generation" of the 
Florentine mannerists. 

W. R. V. 



The bronze statuette of the "Bird 
Catcher," gift of the children of Mrs. 
James L. Fleming" (see cover), is one of 
the best known of the genre figures of 
the master who, coming from Douai, 
became the greatest bronze sculptor in 
Florence after Michelangelo in the six- 
teenth century. While in his large statues 
of marble and bronze he followed the 
Italian trend of representing mythological 
and allegorical subjects, he chose genre 
scenes for some of his statuettes, in accord- 
ance with his northern origin. The "Bird 
Catcher" is a peasant who catches singing- 

birds while they are resting from their 
migratory trips from northern Europe to 
Africa; he throws a light upon them and 
kills them with a club. 

This genre figure exists in several replicas 
— for instance, in the Museo Nazionale 
and the Detroit Museum. It is important 
from a forward point of view, as it gives 
an all-around view of the figure, with open 
extremities and a fantastic silhouette, in 
preparation for the impressionistic sculpture 
up to the time of Rodin. 

W. R. V. 



By W. R. Valentiner 

It was at the dawn of the French Revo- 
lution that Clodion, the greatest French 
sculptor of the latter part of the eighteenth 
century (1738-1814), created the bronze 
relief with Bacchanalian scenes which has 
recently been acquired by the Museum 
(Fig. I). 1 The inscription on the back of 
the plaque, cast into the bronze from the 
terracotta model (Fig. 2), gives the date 
1787; that is, two years before convening 
of the assembly of the estates in Paris, an 
event which started the Revolution. 

Clodion, like Boucher, was a member of 
the "Ancien Regime" in his taste and 
philosophy of life. He worked for the court 
and still more for the rich Parisian aris- 

1 Measurements: 8 1 •> x 20 inches. Acquired through 
the Museum Purchase Fund, 1957. 

tocracy and had adapted their pleasure- 
loving way of living, expressed in a frivolous 
and gay art of charming decorative quality. 
The contents of this art were mostly 
mythological subjects taken from antiquity 
and allegories of love and desire. Clodion's 
greatest activity started with a long stay in 
Rome (1762-1771), where he already was 
receiving orders from Catherine of Russia, 
and lasted until the beginning of the 
Revolution. Unlike Boucher, he had the 
misfortune to live through the Revolution 
and the Napoleonic era (to 1814) without 
being able to adapt himself to the new 
taste of the bourgeoisie. 

One of the few members of the highest 
society who had kept their wealth and 
escaped just before the outbreak of the 

Fig. 1. Claude Michel Clodion (French, 1738-1814), Plaque Representing a Bacchanale. Bronze, 
S}/2 x 20 inches. Museum Purchase Fund. 


Fig. 2. Signature on Reverse of the Bronze Plaque (Fig. 1). 

Revolution was the Cardinal de Rohan. 
Clodion must have had a close relationship 
with him, as the bronze plaque is dedicated 
to him. It reads, on the reverse, "A Mon- 
seigneur le Prince de Rohan, hommage 
de l'auteur, M. C. 1787." We have no 
other document which mentions the rela- 
tionship between the artist and the Prince, 
but, according to a communication of the 
excellent French scholar Louis Reau, works 
by Clodion are mentioned in the inventory 
of the Prince's collection. 

In studying the subject of the plaque, 
which is signed (in addition to the initials 
of the artist on the back) with the full 
name of Clodion in the right front corner, 
we find that it represents one of those 
Bacchanalia of the classical period which 
Bullfinch in his Age of Fable or Beauties of 
Mythology (1898) describes in the following- 
terms: "A feast of Bacchus that was per- 
mitted to occur but once in three years. 
It was attended by the most shameless 
orgies imaginable. Women raging with 

madness or enthusiasm, their heads thrown 
backwards, with dishevelled hair and carry- 
ing in their hands thyrsus-staffs, cymbals, 
swords or serpents. Sileni, Pans, Satyrs, 
Centaurs and other beings of a like kind, 
made up the processions." 

This description obviously refers to the 
scenes which occur on many Roman 
sarcophagi, and Clodion must also have 
taken his inspiration from these scenes 
during his stay in Rome. The scene as 
rendered by Clodion differs, however, in 
several respects. It appears less "shameless," 
as the figures represented are nearly all 
creatures of the imagination — men, women, 
and children all with box feet (with the 
exception of two women and two old men), 
who are devoted to their task of sacrificing 
a ram upon an altar in front of a herma 
representing the bearded Dionysos. A 
female satyr plunges her knife into the 
throat of the animal, while a satyr holds 
up a dish to receive the blood for the sacri- 
fice. To the right another woman, kneeling, 


tries to hold down another ram which is 
probably the next one to be sacrificed. 
Satyrs and Pans are bringing fruit baskets 
and branches with grapes as offerings to 
the God. A woman satyr holds a snake up 
to him and satyrs blowing trumpets accom- 
pany the scene; in the right corner children 
carry the drunken Bacchus child away in 
a scene which reminds us of Van Dyck's 
children's bacchanale in our collection. 

The women neither have dishevelled 
hair nor appear drunk, although the whole 
scene has an undertone of sensuousness due 
to the close pressing together of the volup- 

tuous nude bodies into a compact mass of 
fourteen figures whose intertwining curves 
give a continuous rhythm of movement to 
the vivacious composition. 

If we observe that the best artists in 
France were occupied with such or similar 
scenes following the wishes of their aristo- 
cratic patrons, while the ground was shak- 
ing with the unrest of hungering masses, 
we become aware that they were dancing 
upon a volcano. The Prince de Rohan 
belonged, certainly unwillingly, to those 
who helped to stir up the antagonistic- 
feelings of the lower classes (not against 

Fig. 3. Clodion, Jardiniere. Formerly J. Pierpont Morgan Collection. 


Fig. 4. Clodion, Detail of Jardiniere (Fig. 3). 

him, but against the court) when he was 
involved in the diamond necklace scandal 
of Marie Antoinette (1786), just a year 
before Clodion executed the bronze plaque 
for him. 

Cardinal Louis de Rohan (1734-1803), 2 
whose ancient family was always connected 
with the bishopric of Strassburg, became 
Ambassador to the Austrian court in 1772, 
where he astounded the Viennese through 
his lavish festivals. He, however, made 
himself obnoxious to Marie Antoinette by 
complaining to her mother, the Empress 
Maria Theresa, about her daughter's waste- 
ful habits, while at the same time he spread 
gossip about the Austrian court in Paris. 
Marie Antoinette considered him her great- 
est enemy. But being ambitious and longing 

2 In reference to the ensuing account, compare the 
following articles in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th 
edition: "Rohan, Louis Rene Edouard, Cardinal de," 
and "Diamond Necklace." 

for the position of the prime minister of 
France, he did all he could to reconcile 
her; and in this endeavor — whether it is 
true or not we do not know — he is said 
to have become greatly enamored of the 
Queen, whom he had never met. He came 
under the influence of impostors, the lead- 
ing one being a Countess de Lamotte, who 
had connections with the famous Cagliostro, 
and other questionable characters and was 
told that he could win the favor of the 
Queen if he would present to her a fabulous 
diamond necklace, which she desired. The 
fact is that the necklace had been offered 
for sale to Marie Antoinette before, but she 
had refused to buy it. Rohan was taken in 
by the impostors, who kept up a corre- 
spondence with him thought to have origi- 
nated from the Queen and who enacted 
a scene at night in the Park of Versailles, 
wherein a woman resembling the Queen 
appeared and from a distance expressed her 
approval of the actions of the Prince, to 
whom she seemed favorably disposed. The 
Prince acquired the necklace — for a sum 
of 1,600,000 livre — and paid for it in 
installments. He left it in the hands of 
the impostors, who promised to deliver it 
to the Queen, but who instead escaped 
with it later to England. They had promised 
the Prince that Marie Antoinette would 
wear the necklace at the next court recep- 
tion. When the Queen did not wear it and 
acted no differently toward the Prince in 
public, he became suspicious, and the 
Queen was informed of his intentions and 
the sale of the necklace. She told the King, 
who did not hesitate to have the Prince 
arrested at once in the chapel at Versailles, 
where he was preparing the mass for the 

The trial which followed, in 1786, excited 


the public to a high degree and increased 
the hatred against Marie Antoinette, who 
was thought to be guilty. The Cardinal de 
Rohan was acquitted, which was considered 
to be a victory over the court and the 
unpopular Queen. The scandal was used 
by the revolutionary party for propaganda 
purposes and later in the prosecution of 
the Queen, whose life ended on the scaffold. 

The Prince was exiled and returned to 
the archbishopric of Strassburg; he was 
elected in 1789 to the estates general but 
refused to take the oath upon the constitu- 
tion. He retired to Ettenheim, in the Ger- 
man part of his diocese, where he died in 

If we accept the probability that the 
Prince de Rohan was one of the patrons 
of the artist before the date of the plaque, 
in 1787, it is possible that Codion dedicated 
it to him in recognition of his popular 
victory at the trial of 1786. This same 
plaque was later incorporated as the front 
piece in a jardiniere (Fig. 3) which formed 
part of the J. Pierpont Morgan collection 
of bronzes. This jardiniere has in addition 
to the plaque two narrow end pieces in 
bronze representing still lifes of sacrificial 
objects (Fig. 4) and on the reverse a group 
of five cupids pushing forward a goat, one 

3 Mr. George Wildenstein has kindly provided the 
photographs of the Morgan jardiniere. A third version 
of our plaque is in the fine collection of bronzes belong- 
ing to Dr. Oelze at Amsterdam. 

Neither the bronze plaque nor the jardiniere are 
mentioned in the scanty literature on Clodion — see 
especially the articles in Thieme- Becker and in Gazette des 
Beaux Art, 1892 (Jules Guiffrey), and H. Thirion, Les 
Adam et Clodion, 1885. 

of the cupids sitting on the goat and holding 
a cup of wine in his hand. It is enframed 
by a fine Louis XVI mounting of gilt 
bronze. On each corner appear statuettes 
of flute players, and at the sides of the 
large front plaque two young priestesses 
holding sacrificial dishes, all obviously by 
the hand of Clodion. 3 


The following description of the Jardi- 
niere (not the relief) was furnished by the 
present owner, Mr. George Wildenstein: 

(French: 1738-1814) 

Bronze and marble jardiniere 
Height: 20 inches 

Inscribed on both ends: Aevohe Dionisius; 
on the bottom of the front panel: Son 

Excelonce Monseigneur le Prince de Rohan M. 
Clodion sc 1784 


Montreal, Museum of Fine Arts, The 
eighteenth century art of France and England, 
April 27-May 31, 1950, No. 104 


1910-1915 New York, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art 

1950 Montreal, Museum of Fine Arts 

Prince Louis de Rohan, Archbishop of 

Due de Narbonne-Pelet 

J. Pierpont Morgan, New York 



Thomas Ball is best known for his fine 
equestrian statue of Washington in Boston 
(1860-64) and his statue of Daniel Webster 
in Central Park in New York (1876). He 
was one of the few outstanding American 
sculptors of the nineteenth century and 
reached an age of more than ninety (1819- 
1911). His best works were executed in the 
period after the middle of the century, 
when American literature reached its height 
with Whitman, Melville, and Mark Twain. 

Starting as a clerk and a painter, he 
began modelling when he was about 
thirty and made his success with a few 
portrait busts of small size; especially 
successful were the one of Jenny Lind and 

Fig. 1. Thomas Ball (American, 1819-1911), 
Daniel Webster (1782-1852). Bronze, height 30 
inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Lee Hum- 
ber, Greenville. 

that of Napoleon. To these first works be- 
long also a bust of the well-known American 
statesman and orator Daniel Webster and a 
statuette of the same person. An example of 
the latter (Fig. 1) with the date 1853 has 
been given to the Museum by Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert Lee Humber. In addition to the 
signature it bears the statement, "patent 
assigned to C. W. Nichols," which proves 
that a patent was given to the artist so as 
to prevent others from reproducing his 
works. Ball patented five of his works in 
this manner: The portraits of the two 
American statesmen Clay and Webster, 
the Jenny Lind, and the Napoleon. He 
probably could have made his living from 
the sale of such statuettes, which were a 
pleasant decoration for the drawing rooms 
and the interiors of the time. 

It is important to know that he executed 
our statuette at Boston in 1853, before 
going in 1854 to Italy, where he stayed 
intermittently until 1897. The composition 
has something of the primitive American 
character comparable to some of the early 
portraits in painting of this period. The 
figure stands solidly upon the ground, the 
feet placed one next to the other; there is 
no pose in the attitude of the man, but his 
face, especially in the deep-set eyes, is 
most impressive. The composition is almost 
rectangular; the drapery (made of a separ- 
ate piece of bronze), thrown over a column 
next to the figure, covers the opening be- 
tween the legs and gives strength to the 
composition by building it up from a broad 

That the artist lacked imagination we 
can realize from the fact that he repeated 
the statuette in the over-life-sized statue in 


New York's Central Park (Fig. 2), which 
was unveiled in 1876. 1 In this case, he had 
the monument cast in Munich, while for 
our statuette the casting was homemade. 

Like most American sculptors of the 
period, Ball was best in his portrait busts 
and statues, for genre scenes and classical 
figures follow the literary trend of the time 
and are inferior in quality, nor do they 
show much understanding of the form 
problems. Our statuette and the large 
statue connected with it, and the bust of 
Henry Clay, are the only portraits done 
from life in his early period; the busts of 
Jenny Lind (1853) and of Napoleon (1857) 
are done from photographs or paintings. 

W. R. V. 

1 Inscribed: "Liberty and Union, /Now and Forever,/ 
One and Inseparable, /Daniel Webster, /Presented by,/ 
Gordon W. Burnham,/july IV. MDCCCLXXVI." 

Fig. 2. Thomas Ball, Daniel Webster. Near West 
Seventy-Second Street Entrance, Central Park, 
New York. 



By May ] 

Collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman, 
and other sculptures of smaller size. Lit.: 
North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 
I, No. 2, Raleigh, pp. 21-23 ("Opening of 
Four New Galleries of Early Sculpture and 
Decorative Arts"). Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Fred Olsen, Guilford, Connecticut. 

Head of a Goddess. Greece (School of Praxiteles), 
4th century B.C. Marble, height 9% inches. 
Gift of Mr. Nicholas M. Acquavella, New York. 

wis Hill 

"Head of a Goddess." Greece (School of 
Praxiteles), 4th century B.C. Marble, 
height: 9^4 inches. Gift of Mr. Nicholas M. 
Acquavella, New York. 

"Portrait Head from a Mummy." Egyp- 
tian (Ptolemaic), 323-30 B.C. Plaster, 
height 10 inches. Illustrated, Vol. I, No. 2, 

Bacchus. Greece, 2nd or 3rd century B.C. 
Marble, height 66 inches. Lent by Dr. and Mrs. 
John D. Humber, San Francisco. 


Hercules. Italy (Rome), 2nd century A.D. 
Marble, height 66 inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Jack Linsky, New York. 

p. 27. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen, 
Guilford, Connecticut. 

"Bacchus." Greece, 2nd or 3rd century 
B.C. Marble, height 66 inches. Coll.: 
Pierpont Morgan, New York. Lent by Dr. 
and Mrs. John D. Humber, San Francisco. 

"Hercules." Italy (Rome), 2nd century 
A.D. Marble, height 65 inches. Gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Linsky, New York. 

"St. Magdalene." France, 14th century. 
Limestone, height 43 inches. Gift of Mr. 
Anthony J. Pisani, New York. 

School of Tino da Camaino, "St. Cath- 
erine." Italy (Naples), 14th century. Marble 

relief, diameter 21 inches. Gift of Dr. and 
Mrs. W. Lunsford Long, Jr., Raleigh. 

Donatello (Italian, 1386-1466), "Ma- 

St. Magdalene. France, 14th century. Limestone, 
height 43 inches. Gift of Dr. Anthony J. Pisani, 
New York. 


School of Tino da Camaino, St. Catherine. 
Italy (Naples), 14th century. Marble relief, 
diameter 21 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
W. Lunsford Long, Jr., Raleigh, 

Bust of Henry IV. Italy, 16th century. Bronze, 
height 3}<4 inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur L. Erlanger, New York. 

donna and Child." Polychrome relief 
(stucco on wood), 27 x 26 inches. Coll.: 
Stefano Bandini; Werner Weisbach, Berlin. 
Lit.: Paul Schubring, Donatello (Klassiker 
der Kunst), Stuttgart, 1922, p. 167. Illus- 
trated, Vol. I, No. 1, Fig. 1. Anonymous 

Christoforo Mantegazza (Italian, died 
1482), "The Deposition." Marble relief, 
11 ys x 7^8 inches. Museum Purchase Fund. 

Antonio Federighi (Italian, 1420P-1490), Ma- 
donna and Child. Marble relief, 24^ x 14^ 
inches. Robert F. Phifer Bequest. 


Antonio Federighi (Italian, 1420P-1490), 
"Madonna and Child." Marble relief, 
24^ x 14% inches. Coll.: Palazzo Mal- 
vezzi, Siena; Dr. Preston P. Satterwhite, 
New York. Robert F. Phifcr Bequest. 

Henry IV (portrait bust). Italy, 16th 

century. Bronze, height 3 34 inches; with 

base, 6 inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur L. Erlanger, New York. 

Elephant. Italy (Padua), about 1500. 
Bronze, height 4\ 2 inches; length 8 inches. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur L. Erlanger, 
New York. 

"Madonna and Child." Germany (Lower 
Rhine), about 1500. Boxwood, height 83^ 
inches. Illustrated, Vol. I, No. 2, p. 31. 
Gift of Dr. Frederick Mont, New York. 

Benvenuto Cellini (Italian, 1500-1571), 
"Neptune." Bronze, height 93-2 inches. 
Lit.: Ncrth Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin, 
Vol. I, No. 3, pp. 5-10; illustrated on 
cover and in Figs. 1, 3, and 4. Gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Levy, Jr., Raleigh. 

Elephant. Italy (Padua), about 1500. Bronze, 
height 43^2 inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur L. Erlanger, New York. 

Saturn. Italy, 17th century. Bronze, 9 x 1834 
inches. Gift of Mr. William Wilson, New York. 

Francois Duquesnoy (Flemish, 1594- 
1643), "Sleeping Cupid." Marble, length 
22 inches. Coll.: Lord Michelham. Lit.: 

Knight on Horseback. France, about 1700. Bronze, 
113^2 x \6}/2 inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ar- 
thur L. Erlanger, New York. 


Girl Playing a Flute. France, second half of 18th 
century. Terra cotta, height 64 inches. Robert F. 
Phifer Bequest. 

North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. I, 
No. 1, pp. 9-10; illustrated in Fig. 6. 
Gift of Marcia Lady Cunliffe-Owen, New 

Francois Duquesnoy (Flemish, 1594- 
1643), "The Young Christ" and "The 
Virgin" (companion pieces). Bronze, height 
9 inches. Lit. : North Carolina Museum of Art 
Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 1, pp. 9-10; illustrated 
in Fig. 5. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. 
Levy, Jr., Raleigh. 

"Saturn." Italy, School of Bernini, 17th 
century. Bronze relief, mounted, length 
18J4 inches. Gift of Mr. William Wilson, 
New York. 

Agostino Cornacchini (Italian, 1685- 
1740), "Angel With Scourge Column" 

and "Angel With the Veil of Veronica." 
Marble, heights 43 and 42 inches respec- 
tively. Coll.: Frank Gair Macomber; Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Boston. Lit.: North 
Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. I, 
No. 4-5, pp. 13-22; illustrated in Figs. 
1 and 2. Gifts of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. 
Levy, Jr., Raleigh, and Mrs. Garland S. 
Tucker, Raleigh, respectively. 

"Knight on Horseback With Lance." 
France, about 1700. Bronze, h:11^2 inches, 
•w\\(>]/2 inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur L. Erlanger, New York. 

"St. Sebastian." South Germany, about 
1750. Boxwood, height 13 inches. Illustrated 
Vol. I, No. 2, p. 31. Gift of Mrs. Betty 
Mont, New York. 

"Girl Playing a Flute." France, second 

Joseph Nollekens (English, 1737-1823), Bust of 
William Pitt. Marble, height 21]^ inches. Gift 
of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph W. Gardner, Shelby. 


half of 18th century. Terra cotta, height 
64 inches. Robert F. Phifer Bequest. 

Joseph Nollekens (English, 1737-1823), 
"Bust of William Pitt." Marble, height 
2734 inches (with base). Gift of Mr. and 
Mrs. Ralph W. Gardner, Shelby. 

Hiram Powers (American, 1805-1873), 
"Bust of John C. Calhoun." Marble, 
height 29^2 inches. 

Roy Gussow (American, contemporary), 
"Metaphase." Stainless steel, height 42 
inches. Exhib.: North Carolina Artisst' 
Competition, 1952. Purchase Award. 

Robert A. Howard (American, con- 
temporary), "Landscape II." Bronze, 
height 13^2 inches. Exhib.: North Carolina 
Artists' Competition, 1957. Purchase 

Hiram Powers (1805-1873), Bust of John C. 
Calhoun. Marble, height 29 3^2 inches. 

Roy Gussow (American, contemporary), Meta- 
phase. Stainless steel, height 48% inches. North 
Carolina Artists' Competition Purchase Award, 

Robert A. Howard (American, contemporary), 
Landscape II. Bronze, 1 3 3^2 x 183^ inches. North 
Carolina Artists' Competition Purchase Award, 



Edited By Herbert Keutner 

Agostino Cornacchini, sculptor of the 
city of Pescia in Tuscany, was born in the 
year 1685. Taken by his father Lodovico 
to Florence with the whole family, he was 
placed at the age of eleven under the direc- 
tion of the celebrated Giovanni Battista 
Foggini, sculptor to His Excellency Cosimo 
III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who, when he 
saw the spirited beginnings of the boy, 
said that he was truly born with a chisel 
in his hand. Consequently, aided by his 
own natural inclinations, he in a short 
time made such remarkable progress that 
he proved himself destined to be a sculptor 
by nature, according to his master's pre- 
diction. But at the height of his studies, his 
father died and he became the protege of 
a Florentine nobleman, 2 who admired 

1 Francesco Maria Niccolo Gabburri was born at 
Florence in 1675, and died there in 1742. An honorary 
member of the Accademia Clementina at Bologna, in 
1717 a member of the Accademia della Crusca at 
Florence, and between 1730 and 1740 acting president 
of the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, he was one of 
the most respected art critics, collectors and patrons 
of his day. The Life of Agostino Cornacchini, here published 
for the first time, belongs to a comprehensive manuscript 
of artists' lives, which was bequeathed to the Accademia 
della Crusca under the title Pictorium Abecedarium and is 
now located in the manuscript collection at the Bibli- 
oteca Nazionale at Florence. See Julius Schlosser, La 
letteratura artistica, 2nd ed., Florence, 1956, p. 474. 

His Life of Cornacchini is valuable not only because it 
is a contemporary index, but also because Gabburri was 
his friend and protector. The Florentine Nobleman 
{Cavaliere Fiorentino) mentioned in the beginning of the 
Life was none other than Gabburri. In 1722 he owned 
not only small sculptured work by his protege, but also 
a large number of drawings. See F. Inghirami, Storia della 
Toscana, Fiesole, 1844, Vol. 13, pp. 101 ff. and G. Cam- 
pori, Raccolta di Cataloghi ed lnventarii inediti, Modena , 
1870, pp. 570, 582 ff. and 596. 

2 I.e., Francesco M. N. Gabburri; see Note 1. 

3 Gabburri lived in the former Palazzo Giuntini, Via 
Ghibellina 30 (the present owner is the Cav. Francesco 

i Vivarelli-Colonna). We know from information pro- 
vided by one of the drawings in his collection that the 
. decoration was in a room on the ground floor. See 

him greatly, and through whose assistance 
he continued to develop his great talent. 
He was soon commissioned to execute for 
his patron's own home 3 various stucco 
decorations, which were praised by his 
patron and by all professional artists and 
connoisseurs. This nobleman moved to 
Rome in 1712. 4 He took the artist with 
him and kept him at his own expense 
during the duration of his residence in 
that city, providing not only all that was 
required personally but also all that was 
needed for his art. 

Before the nobleman returned to 
Florence, he arranged for establishment 
of the artist in Rome, as evidence of his 
sincere intention, leaving him under the 
protection of His Eminence Cardinal Fab- 

Campori, op. cit., pp. 584-5: ". . . (un disegno) a penna 
e acquerello, per traverso soldi 12, alto 8, fatto per 
Tomato di una camera terrena in casa il sig. Cav. 
Gabburri. . . ." This decoration was defaced between 
1820 and 1830 during a classicistic restoration of the 

4 With Cornacchini's removal to Rome in 1712 we 
may ask what, besides the decorations mentioned, was 
created during his pre-Roman period. Without the 
possibility of establishing chronological sequence, the 
following can be ascertained: 

1. Stucco decorations in the Chapel of S. Giovanni 
Gualberto in SS. Trinita at Florence. Of this work 
Gabburri possessed four studies of columns, capitals, 
medallions, and masks. See Campori, op. cit., pp. 
583-5. During the purification of SS. Trinita between 
1881 and 1897, these decorations were removed and 
subsequently lost. See Walter and Elisabeth Paatz, 
Die Kirchen von Florenz, Frankfurt a.M., 1940-54, 
V, 270 and 310. 

2. Marble statue of Pope Clement XI. Curiously 
enough, this was not mentioned in the Vita by Gab- 
burri. According to the inscription on the base, the 
figure was executed by Cornacchini in the old tradi- 
tion and was erected in 1710. It stood originally in a 
niche in the great room of the ducal palace at 
Urbino, being removed in 1847 to the left arm of 
the transept in the cathedral at Urbino. See P. 
Gherardi, Guida di Urbino, Urbino, 1875, p. 37, 
E. Calzini, Urbino e i suoi monumenti, Rocca S. Cas- 


broni, 5 who immediately assigned him 
residence in a part of his palace, food and 
a studio in the palace, and in addition from 
time to time gave him subsistence of both 
clothing and money. Studying diligently 
in such surroundings, he sculptured several 
marble groups for His Eminence, one 
representing the "Birth" and the other 
the "Death of Our Lord," executed with 
great animation, intelligence, diligence and 
love. These groups are now placed in the 
beautiful library of Cardinal Fabbroni, 
built entirely at his own expense near the 
church of the Congregation of the Filippini 
at Pistoia for the benefit of the young 

ciano, 1897, p. 53, and also W. Hager, D ie Ehrensla 
tuen der Ptipste, Leipzig, 1929, p. 70 and Plate 36. 

3. "Several statues" in the Academy at Bologna. 
Giampietro Zanotti reports in the Storia deW Ac- 
cademia Clementina di Bologna, Bologna, 1739, p. 57, 
that in the year 1712 Cornacchini, "today the most 
celebrated sculptor in Rome, was the generous donor 
of several beautiful and valuable statues." Further 
details about these statues are unknown. 

4. Designs for scenery and costumes. Gabburri's col- 
lection of drawings contained ten sheets for an 
"accademia," a musical spectacle which took place 
at the Teatro della Pergola during the visit of the 
Grand Elector of Saxony to Florence in 1712. See 
Gampori, op. cit., pp. 583-84. 

5. Terra cotta statuette of Moses. According to the 
inventory of 1722 a terra cotta statuette of Moses 
was in the Gabburri collection. It is uncertain whether 
this work comes from the Florentine period or from 
the first years of his Roman period. See Campori, 
op. cit., p. 596. 

5 Cardinal Carlo Agostino Fabbroni was born in 1656 
at Pistoia and died in 1727 in Rome. He was Secretary 
to Pope Innocent XII, Secretary of the Congregation of 
the Propaganda Fide, and in 1 706 he was raised to the 
purple by Pope Clement XI. His valuable theological 
library was bequeathed to Pistoia, the city of his birth. 
See the document of presentation of May 26, 1726, 
found among other documents of the family archives 
in the Biblioteca Nazionale at Florence, Raccolta Rossi- 
Cassigoli, Cass. XII, v, 1-2. 

For a biography of the Cardinal see Serie di ritratti 
d'uomini illustri Toscani, Florence, 1768, II, 170 ff., or 
L. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della santa 
romana Chiesa, Rome, 1792-97, vol. VIII, 101 ff. 

6 Both marble groups (Figs. 1 and 2) are still in the 
Biblioteca Fabbroniana at Pistoia, flanking the entrance 
to the reading room. The figures were willed to the 
library, together with the contents of the library itself. 
The will states: ". . . Doniamo ancora per uso della 
medesima libreria . . . i due gruppi di marmo scolpiti 
da mano di insigne Artefice, rappresentanti uno la 

students in that city. 6 Continuing to 
advance in the perfection of his art and to 
gain fame, Cornacchini proved himself 
worthy of the protection of His Eminence 
Cardinal Fabbroni and the Florentine 
nobleman, after a few years, by being chosen 
by His Holiness Pope Clement XI to exe- 
cute the important assignment for the eques- 
trian statue of Charlemagne, erected in the 
portico of S. Peter's opposite the celebrated 
equestrian figure of Constantine executed 
by the very famous Cavalier Bernini. 7 He 
sculptured busts of two Cardinals, which are 
seen in the sacristy of S. Carlo al Corso. 8 
Nearby is the beautiful and superbly exe- 

Nativita di nostro Sig. re Cristo e Paltro la depositione 
della Santa Croce, con lor' piedestalli, esistenti pre- 
sentemente nel nostro appartamento nobile di 
Roma. . . ." (See Note 5.) We assume that both groups 
originated in the years 1714-16. Gabburri owned a 
sketch of the "Birth of Christ": "Due disegni di lapis 
rosso o piuttosto due schizzi, uno d'un Presepio, fatto 
di marmo all' Ecc. mo card. Fabbroni, Paltro. . . ." 
See Campori, op. cit., p. 583. 

"Endymion," the only known bronze not mentioned in 
the Vita, is assumed to have originated at the same time 
An example, signed and dated 1716, was found in 1907 
in the collection of L. v. Przybyslowski at Lemberg 
(now Poland). See Kunst und Kunsthandwerk, X, 534-35, 
with illustration. In a letter from Antonio Balestra to 
Gabburri, dated December 25, 1717, the bronze Endy- 
mion seems to be mentioned. See G. Bottari-S. Ticozzi, 
Raccolta di Lettere . . . 2nd ed., Milan, 1822, II, 125. In 
1722 the terra cotta model of the work as well as the 
bronze itself were in Gabburri's possession. See Campori, 
op. cit., p. 596. An additional piece from the collection 
of the Marchese Gino Capponi was seen in 1724 in 
the exhibition of the Florentine Academy in the crossing 
of SS. Annunziata. See Nota de' quadri e opere di scultura 
. . . Florence, 1724, p. 22. 

7 The equestrian statue of Charlemagne (Fig. 3), 
shown in 1725 during the Holy Year, was ordered some 
time before 1722, probably between 1718 and 1720. 
Gabburri owned two drawings for the work, a study for 
the horse and a sketch for the whole monument in its 
niche. See Campori, op. cit., pp. 582-3. Camillo Rusconi 
mentioned in a letter to Paolo Girolamo Piola on 
November 7, 1722, that the work was under way. See 
Bottari-Ticozzi, op. cit., VI, 182 and also Note 10. 

Relazione della Statua equestre di Carlo Maguo. . . . 
Siena, 1725, published on the occasion of the unveiling 
of the work, showed a panel on the base of the monu- 
ment depicting the "Coronation of Charlemagne," in 
addition to the equestrian figure. Nothing is known 
concerning either the design or execution of this relief 
by Cornacchini. 

8 The busts of both cardinals, Luigi Omodei (who 


Fig. 3. Cornacchini, Charlemagne. St. Peter's, Rorri' 


cuted statue of "Hope," placed in the 
church of Sacro Monte della Pieta, 9 which 
earned the applause of all Rome, and in 
fact one cannot praise it as much as it 
deserves. He sent to Spain the statue of 
the "Beatified Francesco da Regis" for 
the Order of the Company of Jesus. 10 For 
the Cathedral of Orvieto two life-size 
angels, "S. Michael" and the "Guardian 
Angel." 11 He executed a bronze group for 
Her Highness Princess Anna Palatina, rep- 
resenting "Judith with the Head of Holo- 
fernes," which was sent to Florence and 
is seen in the apartment of the Elector, 
together with many others of similar scale, 
made expressly for Her Excellency by 
various artists of first rank. 12 After the 
death of Clement XI and of his successor 
Benedict XIII, Clement XII, a Florentine 
of the great house of the Corsini, having 

died at Rome in 1706) and Ferdinando D'Adda (died 
Rome, 1719), assumed to have executed between 1715 
and 1720, are still in the sacristy of San Carlo al Corso 
in Rome. For biographies of the cardinals, see Cardella, 
op. cit., VIII, 7 ff. and 18 ff. 

9 Today in the Chapel of Monte di Pieta. The statue is 
one of a series of the three theological virtues, increased 
to four with the addition of the figure of "Elemosina," 
executed between 1720 and 1725. Besides Cornacchini's 
"Hope," the figure of "Faith" was created by Francesco 
Moderati, that of "Charity" by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 
and that of "Elemosina" by Bernardo Cametti. See 
A. Riccoboni, Roma nelV Arte: La Scultura, Rome, 1942, 
pp. 235, 277, 279 and 283. 

10 Until now unknown, the recumbent figure of 
S. Francesco de Regis was until its destruction during 
the Spanish Civil War in 1936 in the Church of the 
Convent of Descalzadas Reales in Madrid (personal 
communication from Manuel Lorente, Madrid). 

Concerning the model for this statue, see Camillo 
Rusconi's letter of November 7, 1722, to Paolo Girolamo 
Piola (Bottari-Ticozzi, op. cit., VI, 182): ". . . V.S. 
sara gia informata della statua equestre di Carlo Magno, 
che se fa dirimpetto a quella del Costantino del cav. 
Bernino, dal sig. Agostino Cornacchini, scultore fioren- 
tino, il quale scopri a questi giorni un suo modello della 
statua di un santo vescovo alia Rotonda (Pantheon), 
che subito fu ricoperto per vantaggio, come si puo 
credere, dell'autore." 

11 Delivered in 1729, both figures of the archangels 
Michael and Gabriel are found today to the right and 
left of the altar of the relics in the Cappella del SS. 

been elevated to the pontifical chair, 
Cornacchini was commissioned by His 
Holiness for his beautiful chapel recently 
erected in St. John Lateran to sculpture 
a panel in low relief above the high altar, 
measuring eleven by fourteen palms,* 
"S. Andrea Corsini liberating the City of 
Florence," as well as the statue of "Pru- 
dence" at the left, executed with great skill, 
penetration, care in costume and harmony 
and pattern of folds. 13 Cornacchini also 
demonstrated his ability in the colossal 
statue seventeen palms tall representing 
the seated figure of Clement XII in the 
act of bestowing benediction, placed be- 
neath the new portico of the basilica of 
the Lateran. 14 Before these works were 
exposed to the public he had completed a 
bas-relief measuring twenty-two Roman 
palms in height, representing the "Birth 

Corporale in the cathedral at Orvieto. L. Fumi, // 
Duomo di Orvieto e i suoi reslauri, Rome, 1891, p. 319. 

12 Neither the statuette of "Judith" nor the other 
statuettes mentioned in the series exist in the Florentine 

* One Roman palm is equal to .224 meter. 

13 Cornacchini's statue of "Prudence" (illustrated in 
last issue, Fig. 3) remains in the original place above 
the sarcophagus of the Florentine Cardinal Pietro 
Corsini (d. 1405), one of the series of four Cardinal 
Virtues executed for the Corsini Chapel between 1732 
and 1734. See Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. Of the other Virtues, 
Giuseppe Rusconi made the figure of "Fortitude," 
Giuseppe Lironi that of "Justice," and Filippo della 
Valle that of "Temperance." 

Besides the "Prudence," two angels on the sarcopha- 
gus, and the relief mentioned by Gabburri, 2.75 meters 
high and 3.50 meters wide, which hangs in the great 
lunette on the altar wall, depicting "S. Andreas Corsini 
Participating in the Battle of Anghiari," Cornacchini 
executed a part of the stucco decoration of the chapel, 
namely the four pendentive reliefs with symbolic 
representations of the Gifts of the Holy Ghost. See 
A. Valentini, La Patriarcale Basilica Lateranense, Rome, 
1836, II, 4 ff., with many illustrations. 

14 The seated figure of Pope Clement XII, ordered 
in 1735, was placed in the vestibule of S. Giovanni in 
Laterano in 1737, only to be replaced by a figure of 
Constantine the following year. The statue was pre- 
sented to the city of Ancona in April, 1738, to be placed 
on the steps which lead to the church of S. Domenico. 
See Hager, op. cit., p. 73 and Plate 37. 


Fig. 4. Cornacchini, Angel at the right of the Prudentia. 
Corsini Chapel, St. John Lateran, Rome. 

Fig. 5. Cornacchini, Angel at left of the Prudentia. Corsini 
Chapel, St. John Lateran, Rome. 


of the Virgin," 15 ordered by his Majesty 
Vittorio Amedeo, King of Sardinia and 
Duke of Savoy, who himself received the 
artist cordially when he travelled to Turin 
to deliver the work and to put it in place. 
Departing from Turin laden with honor 

15 The five-and-a-half meter high relief — representing 
the "Nativity," not the "Birth of the Virgin" — placed 
on the second altar to the right in the Superga must 
have been commissioned in 1727/28, since the artist 
was paid for the completed work in 1730. See A. Tel- 
luccini, La Real Chiesa di Soperga, Turin, 1912, p. 81. 

16 The commission for the relief was given in Novem- 
ber, 1730, under Vittorio Amedeo II (died October 31, 
1732), and seems to have been completed under Carlo 
Emanuel III in 1733/34. Concerning the fate, destruc- 
tion and final situation of this work, see the author's 
article on Cornacchini in the last issue of this journal 
(Vol. I, No. 415), pp. 21-22. 

17 The statue of the saint, standing on the left bridge- 
head, assumed to have been executed in the mid- 
1730's, was according to Roman tradition not donated 
by Cardinal Albani, but by the Spanish Cardinal 
Alvaro Cienfuegos, Archbishop of Monreale. However, 
we may trust Gabburri's information that the work was 
commissioned by Cardinal Alessandro Albani, who 
was not only famous as a patron of the arts but also 
as a numismatist and collector of antiques, and who 
held the papal appointment as Prefect of the Con- 
gregazione delle Acque in addition to other high papal 

18 The "St. Elias" was erected in 1727, the third in 
a series of great statues of Founders of the Orders 
carried on throughout the entire eighteenth century, 
following Pietro Stefano Monnot's figure of "St. 
Dominic" (1709) and Carol Monaldi's "St. Francis" 
(1725), the Cornacchini figure being placed in the 
right front niche of the Tribune of St. Peter's. 

18 From his last years — Cornacchini is said to have 
died in 1740 in Rome — we know of four colossal stucco 
figures of churchmen, which were placed in the apse 
of the rejuvenated church of S. Agostino in Aquila. See 
M. Oddo Bonafede, Guida della Citta di Aquila, Aquila, 
1888, p. 144. 

20 Giampietro Zanotti, Storia dell ' Accademia Clementina 
di Bologna (4 books in 2 vols.), Bologna, 1739. 

21 Edward Wright, Some Observations Made in Travelling 
through France and Italy in the Years 1720, 1721 and 1722, 
2 vols., London, 1730. 

and gifts, he returned to Rome, where 
another bas-relief of a "Pieta" was 16 
ordered by Carlo Emanuel, successor to 
the throne of Vittorio Amedeo, the work 
to serve as pendant to that already exe- 
cuted for the marvelous church of the 
Superga. For his Eminence Cardinal Albani 
he sculptured a gigantic statue of "St. 
John Nepomuk," placed on the bridge of 
the Molle 17 and for the Carmelite Order 
he executed a statue of St. Elias, placed in 
St. Peter's at Rome. 18 This great artist 
lives in Rome today in 1738, 19 and it is 
hoped that there will continue to be ever 
greater works from his chisel. He was 
admitted as academician to the Florentine 
Academy of St. Luke, as well as ascribed 
as honorary member of the Accademia 
Clementina at Bologna. He is mentioned 
in Giampiero Zannotti's Storia deW Ac- 
cademia (Bk. I, Chap. 7, p. 57 and Bk. IV, 
p. 329). 20 Edward Wright mentions Cor- 
nacchini's statue of Charlemagne in his 
Voyages (Bk. I, p. 206). 21 

Dr. Keutner is an outstanding student of 
Baroque sculpture who is connected with the 
Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence. His "Crit- 
ical Remarks on the Work of Agostino Cor- 
nacchini" appeared in the last issue of this 
journal (Vol. I, No. 4-5, Winter 1957 -Spring 
1958). Thanks are due to Minerva Pinnell, who 
translated the Vita and notes, and to Edith 
London, translator of Dr. Keutner' s first article, 
whose name was unintentionally omitted. 


March 5 to August 6, 1958 

American Paintings 

Enrique Montenegro (born Peru, 1917), 
"Interior With Figures." Anonymous gift 
(G.57.34.12). Oil and charcoal on paper, 
h:2234 w:\6Vs inches. Exhib.: North 
Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 1957 
(cat. 19). 

Franz Kline (born 1910), "Orange Out- 
line." Lent* by Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Levin, 
St. Louis (L.58.8.8). Oil on board, mounted 
on canvas, h:38, w:40 inches. Signed and 
dated 1955 on reverse. Exhib.: "Panel's 
Choice," North Carolina Museum of Art, 
Raleigh, 1957 (cat. 9). 

European Paintings 

Alexis Jawlensky (Russian, 1864-1941), 
"Still Life." Gift of Mr. and Mrs. S. J. 
j Levin, St. Louis (G.58.8.3). Oil on board, 
h.:\8%, w:1434 inches. Signed. 

Berthe Morisot (French, 1841-1895), 
"Old Mill in the Forest of Compiegne." 
| Lent* by Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. 
i Louis (L.58.8.5). Canvas, h:20^, w:24% 
inches. Signed. Coll.: Ronart. 

Antonio Music (Italian, born 1909), 
I "Dalmatian Motif." Lent* by Mr. and 
I Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. Louis (L.58.8.6). 

Canvas, h:23^4, w:32 inches. Signed and 
\\ dated 1952. 

Maurice Utrillo (French, 1883-1955), 
j "Church of Leynes." Lent* by Mr. and 
1 Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. Louis (L.58.8.7). 
I Canvas, h:20, w:24 inches. Signed. 

Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606- 
1669), "Maria van Uylenburg." Lent* by 

* Only long-term loans are listed. 

Mr. and Mrs. Alex B. Andrews, Raleigh 
(L. 58. 15.1). Panel, h:21, w:16 inches. 
Coll.: Major Kay. 

Michele Marieschi (Italian, 1796-1743), 
"Castello Near Venice." Anonymous gift 
(G.58.16.1). Canvas, h:21, w:28 3 4 inches. 

Eugene Boudin (French, 1824-1898), 
"Beach Scene in Normandy." Anonymous 
loan* (L.58.17.1). Canvas, h:10;'s. w:1634 
inches. Signed and dated 1884. 

Lucas Cranach (German, 1472-1553), 
"The Mass of St. Gregory." Anonymous 
loan* (L.58.17.2). Panel, h:34, w:24^ 


Benedetto Briosco (Italian, 1483-1506), 
Relief Representing a Mythological Sub- 
ject. Museum Purchase Fund (58.4.7). 
Marble, h:13, w:47 inches. 

Warrior, companion piece to the follow- 
ing work. Mexico (Nayarit), ca. 300 A.D. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. Louis 
(G. 58. 8.1). Terra cotta, height: 21 inches. 

Wife of Warrior. Mexico (Nayarit), ca. 
300 A.D. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. S. J. Levin, 
St. Louis (G.58.8.2). Terra cotta, height: 
21 inches. 

Elephant. Italy (Padua), ca. 1500. Gift 
of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur L. Erlanger, New 
York (G.58.10.1). Bronze, height: 4J 2 
inches, length: 8 inches. 

Bust of Henry IV. Italy, 16th century. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur L. Erlanger, 
New York (G. 58. 10.2). Bronze, height: 
3M inches; with base, 6 inches. 

Joseph Nollekens (English, 1737-1823), 
Bust of William Pitt. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Ralph W. Gardner, Shelby (G.58.11.1). 



Marble, height: 27*4 inches (with base). 

Thomas Ball (American, 1819-1911), 
"Daniel Webster." Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert Lee Humber, Greenville (G.58.- 
13.1). Bronze, height: 30 inches. Signed 
and dated 1853. 

Paul Wayland Bartlett (American, 1865- 
1925), "Mask." Gift of Mrs. Armistead 
Peter III, Washington, D. C. (G.58.18.1). 
Bronze, height: 12% inches. 

Paul Wayland Bartlett (American, 1865- 
1925), Four Seated Male Figures. Gift of 
Mrs. Armistead Peter III, Washington, 
D. C. (G. 58. 18. 2-. 5). Bronze, heights: 
33^2 to 4 inches. 

Decorative Arts and Others 

Louis XVI Settee. France, 18th century. 
Gift (former loan) of Mr. Otto Feistmann, 
Asheville (GL.56.3.5). Beauvais tapestry 
seat designed by Oudry, back designed by 
Huet; height: 413^ inches. 

Two Louis XVI Chairs. France, 18th 
century. Gift (former loan) of Mr. Otto 
Feistmann, Asheville (GL.56.3.6-.7). Beau- 
vais tapestry seats designed by Oudry, 
backs designed by Huet; heights: 39 inches. 

Four Embroideries. Italy (Florence?), 
16th to 17th century. Gift of Mr. Ralph H. 
Wark, Hendersonville (G.58.9.1-.4). Linen, 

lengths: 11 Y 2 to 21 widths: 3>£ to iy 2 

Embroidery. Italy (Venice or North 
Italy), 16th to 17th century. Gift of Mr. 
Ralph H. Wark, Hendersonville (G.58.9.5). 
Linen, length: 11, width: 5 inches. 

Brocade. Japan, 18th century. Anony- 
mous gift (G.58.12.1). Silk, length: 64%, 
width: 66 inches. 

Group of sixteen sculptured plaques. 
Egypt (Coptic), 4th to 6th century A.D. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Fred Olsen, Guilford, 
Connecticut (G.58.14.1-.16). Bone. 


Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German, 1880- 
1938), "Girl in Music Hall." Museum 
Purchase Fund (58.4.8). Etching, h:8K, 
w:6% inches. Signed. Exhib.: "E. L. 
Kirchner, German Expressionist," North 
Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 1958 
(cat. 72). 

Group of eight drawings of the 17th and 
18th centuries. Museum Purchase Fund 

James Ensor (Belgian, 1860-1949), "Por- 
trait of the Artist's Mother." Gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. Louis (G.58.8.4). 
Drawing, pencil on paper, h-.S}^, w:634 
inches. Signed. 


Officers and Board of Directors of the State Art Society 

Governor Luther H. Hodges Honorary President 

Mr. Robert Lee Humber President 

Mr. Edwin Gill Vice-President 

Mrs. James H. Cordon Treasurer 

Vice-Presidents at Large Elected 

Mrs. Frank Taylor Dr. Clarence Poe 

Mrs. Jacques Busbee Mrs. Isabelle Henderson 

Mr. John V. Allcott Dr. Clemens Sommer 

Mr. Egbert L. Davis, Jr. 

Appointed by the Governor Mr. Henry L. Bridges 

Dr. Sylvester Green Mr. Gregory Ivy 

Mrs. Charles Cannon Mrs. J. H. B. Moore 

Mr. Ralph C. Price Mr. Edwin Gill 

Ex Officio 

Hon. Luther H. Hodges Governor of North Carolina 

Dr. Charles M. Carroll State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Hon. Malcolm B. Seawell Attorney General 

Mrs. R. S. Bigham, Jr Art Chairman, North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs 

Staff of the Museum 

W. R. Valentiner Director 

James B. Byrnes Associate Director 

Ben F. Williams Curator 

Charles W. Stanford, Jr Curator of Education 

May Davis Hill Librarian, Registrar, and Curator of Prints 

William T. Beckwith Budget Officer 

Peggy Jo Kirby Secretary to Director 

Peggy Noblin Secretary 

Edith Johnson Sales Desk 

William A. Weathersby Library Assistant 

Betty Debnam Public Informatiou 

Frank L. Manly Preparator 

Branton L. Olive Packer and Shipper 

James R. Hampton Head Museum Guard 


Hours: Open Tuesdays through Saturdays 10-5; Sundays 2-6; Closed Mondays and 
legal holidays. 

Telephone: TE 4-3611, Ext. 7569. 

Tours: May be scheduled upon advance written request. 

Membership in the North Carolina State Art Society: Annual $5.00; Contributor 
$10.00; Sustaining $25.00; Patron $50.00; Life $100.00; Donor $500.00; Benefactor 

All gifts to the Museum, whether of objects or money, are tax deductible. Names of 
donors are permanently attached to objects purchased with donated funds. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art 




Permit No. 453 

Cover: Fabritius, Carel (Dutch, ca. 1624-1654), St. Matthew Writing the Gospel. Oil on 
canvas, 42 x 4234 inches. W. R. Valentiner Memorial Purchase Fund. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin is published quarterly. Copyright, 1957, by the North Carolina Museum 
of Art, 107 East Morgan Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Subscriptions $2.00 a year. Single copies $.50. Sent free 
to North Carolina State Art Society members. Four weeks' notice required for change of address. 




Foreword 2 

Two Busts by Cellini 11 

By W. R. Valentiner 

Tributes to W. R. Valentiner Delivered at Memorial Luncheon, April 6, 1959 

Contributors: Luther H. Hodges 15 

Edwin Gill 16 

Edgar P. Richardson 18 

Sherman E. Lee 20 

Perry T. Rathbone 22 

Robert Lee Humber 25 

A Selection of Articles Written in Memory of W. R. Valentiner 

Contributors: Colin Agnew 26 

Hans Hess 29 

Eduard Plietzsch 30 

Friedrich Winkler 33 

Fritz W. Neugass 36 

Lionello Venturi 39 

Germain Seligman 40 

Checklist of Gifts Presented to the North Carolina Museum of Art in Memory of 

i w. R. Valentiner 43 

Bppendix 49 


In the Spring of 1958, Dr. Valentiner 
left Raleigh to travel to Europe where he 
was to gather material to revise his earlier 
Rembrandt studies for the projected re- 
issue of the Klassiker der Kunst series. He 
made the journey against the advice of his 
physician and friends, but, as always, after 
thanking all for their kindness and feel- 
ing deeply touched at their concern for 
his personal comfort, he went ahead with 
his plans, relying on fate. His tour, which 
was interrupted by enforced rests along the 
way, was to be the last of what had become 
an annual pilgrimage to European art 
centers where he would renew his acquaint- 
ance with the old and delight in the dis- 
covery of the new. In many respects, this 
final trip was a compressed symbol of his 
whole career, highlighted as it was by 
discoveries, acquisitions, and the study of 
a new field of art, characteristic of his 
life's work and interest. 

On his first stop in Paris, Dr. Valentiner 
made arrangements to have special photo- 
graphs taken of the work of French Renais- 
sance sculptors, which artists had re- 
cently attracted his interest. While there, 
he penned a short article on two bronze 
busts in the Louvre which has been selected 
for printing here since it is one of his last 
writings. As usual, while in Paris, he started 
filling his briefcase with paperback volumes 
by contemporary French writers and poets, 
as he was to do later in Germany and 
Britain. These kept company together with 
an American reprint of Goodbye, Mr. Chips 
which he had picked up along the way. 

1 We are pleased to report that this painting has now 
been presented as a partial gift to the Museum. 

Moving on to England, he discovered a 
painting in the London art market which 
had been known to him before only through 
photographs. After studying the original, 
he pronounced it a portrait of Maria van 
Uylenburg, painted about 1633 by Rem- 
brandt. 1 A few days later, he wrote the 
Museum that he had just seen a marvelous 
canvas by Carel Fabritius, "St. Matthew 
Writing the Gospel." Urging that every 
effort be made to acquire this work, he 
wrote, "If we acquire the present painting 
[these masters around Rembrandt] will be 
better represented in Raleigh than any- 
where else in U.S.A., and in Europe 
[surpassed] only in the Rijksmuseum at 

Just as he had always done since his 
student days, Dr. Valentiner sought out 
the work of modern artists. This time, he 
purchased for himself a handsome con- 
struction by Barbara Hepworth titled 
"Curlew," a study in sheet copper and wire 
for a larger work. 

From England, Dr. Valentiner traveled 
to Germany where he first stopped to visit 
his brother Siegfried at Bad Oeynhausen. 
A few days later, in Munich, he suffered 
an attack which forced him to rest at a 
sanatorium for six weeks. Upon his release, 
he decided to cancel the rest of his trip 
and start the return to America. He man- 
aged to get as far as Bremen, where his 
brother Theodor lives and where he suf- 
fered another setback. After two weeks, he 
signed a release and sailed for his beloved 
New York. A short time later, he passed 
away in the apartment of his friend, the 
playwright Clifford Odets, just around 
the corner from the Metropolitan Museum, 


where his career had begun a half-century 

Within a few weeks of his passing, the 
Governor and Council of State of North 
Carolina voted a special appropriation to 
assemble a memorial exhibition to honor his 
service to this State and its people. Through 
the cooperation of various museum directors 
and private collectors it was possible, in 
the short space of eight months, to open the 
Masterpieces of Art Exhibition which con- 
tained some two hundred works of art, of 
which almost half were items Dr. Valen- 
tiner had purchased for museums where he 
served as director. To these were added 
paintings and sculpture by masters whose 
works were the subject of scholarly exhibi- 
tions he had arranged, as well as a selection 
of works by old and modern masters from 
the personal collection, which he had ac- 
quired during his lifetime. 

During the six weeks that the memorial 
show was on view, all previous attendance 
records were broken by the more than 
twenty-eight thousand visitors. The exhibi- 
tion was accompanied by an illustrated 
catalogue, which, in addition to listing the 
loans, included a group of works of art 
presented to the Museum as gifts in memory 
of Dr. Valentiner. Other gifts were re- 
ceived after the catalogue went to press, 
and these are reproduced here for the first 
time, together with an up-to-date checklist 
of all the memorial gifts. Our Museum is 
pleased to announce that with the help of 
funds donated in memory of Dr. Valentiner 
the painting by Carel Fabritius has been 
purchased in his name. With its acquisition, 
we draw to a close the formal program of 
the Valentiner Memorial which began 
shortly after his death on September 6, 

1958 and took more than a year to con- 

In addition to funds and works of art, 
many individuals donated articles or trib- 
utes composed in his memory. To have 
attempted to publish them all would have 
required a volume, so we have narrowed 
our selection to include reminiscences 
written by Dr. Valentiner's friends and 
colleagues for various art publications in 
Europe. These are reprinted in the belief 
that they may otherwise escape notice by 
all but the specialist in art. These articles 
reflect the respect and interest that was 
accorded the work and career of Dr. 
Valentiner, particularly in Europe where 
he was greatly admired for combining the 
European tradition of scholarship with the 
dynamic program of public education, 
which he helped create as the hallmark of 
American museums. 

To record the devotion and admiration 
of his friends in this country, we have 
chosen to print a group of speeches de- 
livered at a memorial luncheon held as part 
of the exhibition preview. Since most of 
Dr. Valentiner's American museum career 
was spent in the service of museums sup- 
ported by public funds, it is appropriate to 
open the tributes with the speech delivered 
by Governor Luther H. Hodges who spoke 
on behalf of the people of North Carolina. 
State Treasurer Edwin Gill spoke not only 
as an official of the State and a member of 
the Board of the Art Society, but also on 
behalf of a warm, personal friendship that 
he and Dr. Valentiner had formed during 
the early days of this Museum. Robert 
Lee Humber, President of the State Art 
Society, acted as chairman of the luncheon 
program, in which capacity he paid tribute 


to Dr. Valentiner's contribution to the 
establishment of the Museum and to his 
service as its first director. Dr. Humber's 
"In Memoriam," which appeared in this 
Bulletin, Summer 1958, has been reprinted 
here. To the group of reprinted articles and 
speeches, we have added a tribute written 
by Germain Seligman, New York City art 
dealer and longtime friend of the late Dr. 
Valentiner. It has been selected to symbolize 
the many friendships Dr. Valentiner formed 
with those in the art market, a number of 
which included a sharing of scholarly 

The speeches of Edgar P. Richardson, 
Sherman E. Lee, and Perry T. Rathbone, 
which were delivered at the luncheon, are 
tributes paid by distinguished museum 
directors who served their apprenticeship 
under Dr. Valentiner, and, who through 
that association, became his lifelong friends. 
The good Doctor took great pride in the 
achievement and success of each of these 
men, for he believed that some of his 
philosophy would continue to find ex- 
pression through their work. 

In his luncheon speech, Perry Rathbone 
paid tribute to Dr. Valentiner's extra- 
ordinary ability to "start over again" in a 
new environment, to break ground and to 
build a new museum. The opportunity to 
do so presented itself on five separate 
occasions so that to trace his whole career, 
we must cross America twice from New 
York to California and back to Raleigh 
with a stop at Detroit, where he spent the 
major part of his career. 

Dr. Valentiner's first appointment in 
America was as Curator of Decorative 
Arts at the Metropolitan Museum between 
1908 and 1914. His position there en- 
compassed the art of the Orient and the 

Near East, and with the exception of 
painting, all of European Art, since the 
beginning of Christianity. Therefore, his 
domain included everything except the 
fields of painting and archaeology. Despite 
the word "decorative" in his title, he had 
very little interest in objects of skill and 
craft; instead, he focused his attention on 
expressive and ritual works which embody 
mankind's beliefs or imaginative and vision- 
ary aspirations. 

During the six years he served at the 
Metropolitan, he built up a collection of 
masterpieces of Gothic and Renaissance 
sculpture, Near and Far Eastern art, as 
well as a distinguished collection of early 
Christian art. The division of decorative 
arts, which he originated, has since evolved 
into a group of separate departments, each 
headed by an outstanding specialist. Within 
a year after his arrival, he organized and 
presented the first great loan exhibition of 
old masters ever to be held in an American 
museum (the Hudson-Fulton Exhibition 
held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
in 1909). Included in it were most of the 
masterpieces of Dutch seventeenth century 
art owned by American collectors at that 
time. This was the first of some fifty such 
special exhibitions complete with cata- 
logue, which he arranged throughout his 

As a German national, he served his 
homeland during World War I. In 1921, he 
returned to the United States, to be ap- 
pointed first Director of the Detroit Institute 
of Arts. There, Dr. Valentiner's first task 
was to work with the architect designing 
the new museum which he was to create. 
In the plans, he incorporated provisions 
for the arrangement of the museum's col- 
lection in period-room settings — a practice 

which he pioneered. Painting, sculpture, 
and the decorative arts of a given period 
were integrated in separate galleries to 
demonstrate the unifying qualities that 
make up the style or personality of an 

It is interesting to note that the first 
collection of paintings he bought for Detroit 
contained works by late nineteenth and 
twentieth century French masters, and in 
the group was the first Matisse to be pur- 
chased by an American museum. At the 
same time, he acquired other works by 
such masters as Degas, Monet, Van Gogh, 
and others, for about the same amount 
that one would pay for the work of a 
living American artist today. 

His museum was, if not the first, one of 
the earliest institutions to offer a schedule 
of chamber music concerts as part of its 
general cultural program. The work of 
many modern composers had their first 
audience in the region at these recitals at 
the Institute. Hindemith once performed 
some of his own compositions during his 
stay in Detroit. Among other early achieve- 
ments, Dr. Valentiner purchased for De- 
troit, at a time when in America such items 
were considered solely of ethnographic im- 
portance, the work of so-called primitive 
cultures — the African Negro and the 
Indians of Mexico and South America. 

In 1945, at age sixty-five, he was obliged 
by law to give up his position at Detroit. 
After a short retirement in New York, he 
became restless and accepted the position 
as Director-Consultant at the Los Angeles 
County Museum. That institution is one 
of the few museums remaining which com- 
bine the separate disciplines of history, 
science and art under one roof. At first, Dr. 
Valentiner hoped that this strange union 

could be turned to advantage. Because his 
own background was steeped in science and 
history, he believed that somehow he might 
be able to persuade the other divisions to 
overhaul their departments with emphasis 
on the creative and aesthetic aspects of 
life instead of the paralyzed-in-action 
corpses which are used in habitat groups 
and specimen cases. Recalling the success 
of the mural which he had commissioned 
Diego Rivera to paint for the main hall of 
Detroit Institute, he tried without success 
to persuade the trustees at Los Angeles 
to let him engage Morris Graves to paint 
murals in the main foyer, using small 
creatures of nature. 

From 1946 until 1954, Dr. Valentiner 
built the Art Division of the Los Angeles 
County Museum from a few scattered 
galleries containing private collections into 
a distinguished museum which will soon 
break away and move into its own building. 
Of all the work in building that collection, 
two projects gave him great pleasure, be- 
cause each in its own way provided the 
museum with collections of great impor- 
tance and quality. The first was the acquisi- 
tion of the George Gard de Sylva collection 
of modern French Impressionist and Post- 
Impressionist painting and sculpture. Mr. 
de Sylva had previously acquired a few late 
nineteenth century paintings, but he wanted 
to round out his holdings into a collection 
to present to the Museum. He asked Dr. 
Valentiner to travel to New York where 
together they purchased the balance of the 
collection. Unfortunately, all of the works 
in that collection had not been presented 
to the County Museum before Mr. de 
Sylva's death, and a large number of them 
were used to settle obligations against his 
estate. Nevertheless, the paintings and 


sculpture which were presented, such as 
the Degas, "Two Sisters," the Picasso, 
"The Woman With the Blue Veil," and 
Rouault's early painting, "Samson Turning 
the Millstone," are some of the Museum's 
greatest masterpieces. 

The second great project was the selection 
and acquisition of a number of specialized 
collections from funds contributed by, and 
the vast holdings of William Randolph 
Hearst. Among these gifts the collection of 
Gothic and Renaissance sculpture would 
have placed the Los Angeles County Mu- 
seum in the front rank of American 
museums. In 1952, at age 72, while still at 
the County Museum, Dr. Valentiner was 
persuaded to devote one-half of his time to 
converting the private residence of J. Paul 
Getty into use as a public museum. This 
task engaged him for the better part of a 
year, during which time he rearranged the 
collection and designed the new construc- 
tion, which has since been built. By 1954, 
he had decided to retire to Italy where he 
planned to continue his studies in Italian 
sculpture, and to prepare his diaries, letters 
and other material for final publication. 

Less than a year later he was invited to 
come to Raleigh to be the first Director of 
this institution. As early as 1952, he had 
made a study of the paintings which were 
under consideration for the museum by the 
State Art Commission, and before accept- 
ing the position as Director, he was again 
able to give some estimate of the collection. 

Arriving at Raleigh in November of 
1955, he set about working with the archi- 
tect and contractors, making the necessary 
last minute changes to accommodate the 
collection. In less than six months, he had 
arranged the collection, published the 
catalogue, and opened the Museum to the 

public. Some three weeks following the 
opening of the Museum, he submitted a 
plan, suggesting that the State acquire the 
two buildings to the East of the Museum, to 
be renovated and related to the present build- 
ing, so that there would be ample space and 
facilities to take care of a total Museum. His 
plan was quite simple and of the highest 
practical character. It envisioned the pres- 
ent Museum continuing to feature painting 
and other two dimensional materials; sculp- 
ture and three dimensional objects would be 
assigned to the third building in the unit, 
with the central structure redesigned and 
adapted for the curatorial, educational, and 
administrative responsibilities of the Mu- 
seum. One of the most important parts of 
this plan was the reorientation of the 
entrance and facade from East Morgan 
Street to New Bern Avenue, a 180-degree 
turn, so that the vacant spaces at the rear 
could be converted into a park-like setting 
for an outdoor sculpture court and main 

We are pleased to announce that during 
the last General Session of the State 
Legislature, an appropriation was made 
which will permit the demolition of the 
building adjacent to the Museum, and 
allow for the construction of a new five or 
six story building. 

During the three years that he lived in 
Raleigh, Dr. Valentiner accomplished a 
great deal of work. Aside from his daily 
Museum routine, he saw the publication 
of two major volumes of his writing: The 
Bamberg Rider in 1956, and Rembrandt and 
Spinoza the following year. In 1956 he 
organized an exhibition of the work of 
Rembrandt and his Pupils, which proved 
to be the only major event in this country, 
to celebrate the 350th anniversary of 


Rembrandt's birth. The following year, he 
assembled the first museum retrospective 
exhibition devoted to the work of the 
German Expressionist, E. Ludwig Kirchner, 
whose work he first introduced in Detroit 
in 1937. 

For the year 1958, he had planned to 
organize an exhibition of early textiles 
and tapestries which was to include many 
loans from European collections. In plan- 
ning for this, he may have had in mind the 
first museum exhibition that he organized 
after his arrival in America, that of "A 
Loan Exhibition of Early Oriental Rugs" 
at the Metropolitan Museum in 1910. 

Those who knew Dr. Valentiner are 
aware that he had very little interest in 
personal property, other than his tools of 
scholarship, the books in his library, his 
study collection of photographs; and, of 
course, the collection of modern painting 
and sculpture, which he had assembled 
during his lifetime. 

In preparing his last Will, after be- 
queathing his Rembrandt drawings to his 
daughter and recognizing a few friends with 
token gifts, he assigned the remainder of 
his estate to the Museums of Detroit, 
Cleveland, and North Carolina. He desig- 
nated this Museum as the depository for 
his library and his photographs, as well as 
the greater part of his art collection. In a 
single gesture, the first two sections of the 
gift provide the base for a center of special- 
ized study in seventeenth century art of the 
Lowlands, with unique resources on Rem- 
brandt and his pupils and Hals and his 
followers. Of almost equal importance, is 
the extensive material on Italian sculpture 
from the eleventh through sixteenth cen- 
turies. In addition, he also assigned to this 
institution his diaries, letters and manu- 

scripts, which provide great insight into the 
personalities who helped shape the cultural 
life of the twentieth century — the poets, 
writers, and philosophers, as well as the 
collectors, scholars, and artists. 

As with most scholars, he left a number 
of manuscripts, which for one reason or 
another, were never published. These range 
from subjects in which he had a continuing 
interest, such as seven notebooks on Leo- 
nardo and three on Verrocchio, through 
to the beginning of a volume of Pre- 
Columbian Art and an unfinished article 
on the American sculptor, John Quincy 
Adams Ward. The treatise on the "Mediae- 
val Character of Mayan Art" was almost 
complete before the outbreak of World 
War II, when Dr. Valentiner apparently 
set it aside because he could not rationalize 
the greatness of Mayan art with the brutal 
savagery of its ritualism, certainly not in 
the climate of an impending war against 
human cruelty. On the other hand, "the 
park sculpture" of J. Q,. A. Ward was in 
writing before Dr. Valentiner left on his 
last trip to Europe. He considered Ward to 
be an outstanding artist, corresponding to 
the painter Winslow Homer in style, period 
and quality. Here again, he had turned 
his attention to material that attracted his 
notice during the early days of his 
career at the Metropolitan. At that time, 
he was not in favour of the anecdotal and 
historical sculpture which he found scat- 
tered among the shrubbery on his walks 
through Central Park. However, on his 
return from one of his New York trips in 
1955 or 1956, he began assembling notes on 
Ward, whose work he had recently dis- 
covered. A short time later, Dr. Valentiner 
arrived at the Museum one morning in a 
state of outrage, ready to step out of 


character by writing a letter of protest to 
the New Ycrk Times. It seems that he had 
just read an article in The New Yorker con- 
cerning the cleaning, re-tooling, and re- 
patinating of St. Gaudens "General 
Sherman" which stands at the entrance to 
Central Park. He was sure that if allowed 
to continue, the Fark Department would 
sandblast all the statues until "they shine 
like kitchen pots." He could not under- 
stand why there had been little or no com- 
plaint against such cleaning in an art 
center like New York. However, he soon 
realized that most of the damage had 
already been done, and on his next trip to 
New York, he arranged for black and 
white, and colour photographs of all of 
Ward's works, in case the cleaning project 
was resumed. 

On the flyleaf of the Memorial Catalogue 
we printed an excerpt from the preface 
of Dr. Valentiner's autobiography, which 
begins, "there is substance in every one for 
two autobiographies, one describing the 
events of his external life, particularly the 
achievements in his occupation; the other 
telling of his inner experiences, among 
which the most significant are related to 

Frobably no other single activity that he 
engaged in, more effectively records and 
documents his career and personality than 
does the personal art collection which he 
assembled during his lifetime. Dr. Valen- 
tiner was not what one would call a private 
collector, that is, not in the usual sense of 
the word. His collection is a highly personal 
ledger of the work of artists to whom he 
devoted much of his career. In it one can 
find a visual account of his achievements, 
(as well as his frustrations) and evidence 
of his love. The items by early masters 

in the collection are by artists upon 
whom his own fame rests and about whose 
work he published major studies. There 
are also drawings of Rembrandt and his 
school, a sketchbook by Jacques Louis 
David, a marble relief by Tino da Camaino, 
and a small cire perdu bronze St. George and 
the Dragon, which he described as "a cast 
from an original wax by Leonardo." There 
is, as well, a handsome marble figure of 
David, which he must have acquired about 
1913, at the time he wrote the book on 
Michelangelo, to whom he attributes this 
piece. Some textiles and a few isolated 
drawings, paintings, and sculpture about 
complete the group. 

The modern section more closely corre- 
sponds to what Dr. Valentiner refers to as 
the second autobiography, since it reflects 
his love for, and participation in, the cre- 
ative spirit of his own day. He had a bound- 
less curiosity about the undiscovered and 
the overlooked, in past history, as well as 
the present. In consequence, he spent 
a great part of his life searching out and 
championing the work of living artists, 
many of whom have since been recognized 
as masters. He loved to visit young artists in 
their studios where he could see their total 
personality revealed in un-selfconscious sur- 
roundings. Here he could study various ] 
stages in the artist's development, and 
upon such occasions, many of the items in 
his collection were bought. Others he 
bought from exhibitions which he arranged 
to introduce the work of an artist to the 
public. Sometimes, as in the case of the 
Kirchner Show at Detroit, in 1937, his ; 
purchase was the only sale. 

In the last years of his life it gave him 
great satisfaction, after almost forty years 
of devoted work and effort on his part, to 


see proper recognition and respect accorded 
to German Expressionism and the artists 
grouped under its banner. 

If one were to attempt to summarize Dr. 
Valentiner's philosophy of art through the 
works in his collection, one might conclude 
that he had little interest in "finished" 
works; that is, he was drawn to work which 
evidenced the artist's action upon the 
material, which expressed a passionate 
involvement with the act of creation. Most 
of the items have a rougher, more spon- 
taneous character, so that as opposed to 
being in themselves a culmination, they 
are fragments of a greater continuity. 

His designation of this Museum as chief 
benefactor of his estate was the material 
extension of this conviction. For here, his 
library, his study materials, and his writings 
will form the nucleus of an important center 
of research, which can inspire students and 
assist scholars in carrying on the studies 
which gave him so much satisfaction in 
life. His collection of twentieth century 
painting and sculpture will provide this 
young Museum with a fully developed 
department for modern art, as well as an 
aesthetic foundation upon which to con- 
struct a great institution worthy of his vision 
and trust. J. B. B. 




By W. R. Valentiner 

EDITOR'S NO TE: On his last trip abroad, 
the late W. R. Valentiner was gathering 
material for a revised edition of his earlier 
studies on Rembrandt. As always, when working 
on a major project, he had one or more smaller 
studies going on at the same time — a sort of point, 
counterpoint — providing him with diversion so that 
he could return to the larger task with renewed 

The following article is an example of this 
type of subordinate study and reflects Dr. Valen- 
tiner 's continued interest in Cellini, about whom 
he had published several articles. At various 
intervals during his lifetime, he had expressed 
the hope of being able to bring together material 
for a book on the artist. 

Two handwritten versions of this article 
(probably the last of such studies) were found 
among the papers he had with him in Europe, the 
more complete of which is printed here. Certain of 
Dr. Valentiner 's writings have appeared post- 
humously in various art journals, and others are 
scheduled for the future* From the store of 
unpublished manuscripts in his estate, this Mu- 
seum hopes to draw material for inclusion in 
subsequent issues of the "Bulletin.'" 

There are very few among Cellini's 
works mentioned in his autobiography 
which have not yet been identified; most 

* "Michelangelo's Cupid for Jacopo Gallo," Art 
Quarterly, Vol. 21, Autumn 1958, pp. 257-264; "Jacobus 
Vrel or Jacques de Ville," Bulletin of the J. Paul Getty 
Museum, Vol. 1959, p. 12; "Chronology of Donatello's 
Early Works," Festschrift Fur Prof. Friedrich Winkler, 
Berlin, 1959; "Rustici in France," Studies in the History of 
Art, London, 1959, pp. 205-217. 

1 Benvenuto Cellini, Autobiography (tr. Symonds), New 
York, Modern Library, p. 317. 

2 Autobiography, p. 317. 

3 Autobiography, p. 317. 

appealing perhaps, from his description, 
being a portrait bust of "a very handsome 
girl, whom I kept for my own pleasure. I 
called this Fontainbleau, after the place 
selected by the King for his particular 
delight." 1 Cellini made this bust in Paris 
as a companion piece to a head of Julius 
Caesar, which he modelled "from a reduced 
copy of a splendid antique portrait I had 
brought with me from Rome." 2 

These two heads Cellini cast at the same 
time as the large model of the Jupiter 
which belonged to the series of gods ordered 
by Francis I, intended to be executed in 
color as torch bearers for the diary table. 
They were the first bronze casts Cellini 
made in France with the help of French 
workmen who, however, proved to be 
unsatisfactory. Both heads came out of the 
furnace in good shape, but the Jupiter was 
ruined. He was most annoyed, but some- 
what consoled with the good cast of the 
two heads. 

I am inclined to believe that the two 
heads are preserved to us in the Louvre, 
in a bust of a Roman Emperor and one 
of a very handsome French girl. 

There are, however, several obstacles 
which have to be overcome if we want to 
accept the identification. Cellini speaks of 
making "on my own account a head of 
Julius Caesar, bust and armour, much 
larger than the life." 3 The two figures are 
not busts in the sense of the bronze busts of 
Cosimo I and Biondo Aldoviti which we 
know thus far as works of Cellini. They are 
really only bronze heads with a short 


addition of the breasts in marble, this 
addition being much smaller than in the 
case of the two official busts. If we read 
the text of Cellini carefully, we will find, 
however, that he speaks of these only once 
as busts; that is in the previously quoted 
sentence (see footnote No. 3), while he 
speaks of them four times in the following of 
heads only, which he cast. Except in the 
first paragraphs, we hear nothing more of 
the additional section of marble, which 
was not essential. 

More important is that he speaks of the 
heads as more than life size, while they 
are in reality just the size of life. We believe 
this to be one of the exaggerations of the 
artist, which can be proved to be wrong 
if we follow closely his description of the 
casting, especially when it comes to the 
exaggeration of one of the translators who 
speaks of their being of colossal size. The 
plaster casts were, of course, a little larger 
(one inch) than the shrunk bronzes, and 
this seemed to have appeared to the artist 
as if they were much larger than life size. 

Regarding the casting, Cellini explains 
how he first constructed "an admirable 
little furnace for the casting of the bronze, 
got all things ready, and baked our 
moulds." 4 The French helpers "put their 
own piece into the furnace while I placed 
my two heads one on each side of the 
Jupiter. At daybreak they began, quite 

4 Autobiography, p. 317. 
6 Autobiography, p. 318. 

quietly, to break into the pit of the furnace. 
They could not uncover their large mould 
[of the Jupiter] until they had extracted 
my two heads." 5 

Now, we happen to know the size of 
the large model of the Jupiter, for these 
torch figures were made, as Cellini tells us, 
exactly the height of the King, who meas- 
ured just under six feet. As there were 
rather high bases with reliefs for each 
figure, the statues were about two-thirds 
life size, or about the size of the two statues 
from the Pourtale's collection in the Detroit 
Institute of Arts. Considering the fact that 
the two bronze heads were placed on each 
side of the statue, of which one arm was 
raised for holding the torch, it seems most 
improbable that they were of "colossal" 
size, especially as the furnace "was little" 
as Cellini says himself. 

Perhaps it may seem even more difficult 
to explain that the bust of a Roman 
Emperor who is undoubtedly Lucius Se- 
verus of the second century could be called 
by Cellini a bust of Julius Caesar. But we 
should remember that at Cellini's time 
the iconography of the Roman busts was 
very confused, and we could not quite 
imagine that Cellini would have made a 
companion piece of a young girl to one 
of the real busts of Caesar, who is usually 
represented as an elderly, bearded, and 
hairless person. The companion of the 
young, pretty girl had to be a youthful, 
good-looking man which certainly fits 
much better than a Julius Caesar. 



By Luther H. Hodges 
Governor of North Carolina 

May I say welcome to all the distin- 
guished guests that are here, particularly 
those from out of the State and also the 
wonderful people from within the State. 

I would like to add a word to that of 
Dr. Humber and others who will follow of 
appreciation to Dr. Valentiner, and just a 
personal glimpse or so. 

Never has a State benefited so well as 
it has from the investment which it put 
in Dr. Valentiner after urging him to come 
in the evening of his life to help this State 
start an art museum. As was mentioned, I 
saw him very early, became one of his 
close friends, enjoyed seeing him often, 
liked the twinkle in his eye, liked the way 
he held out his hearing aid, and the sense 
of humor in what he said, liked his devotion 
to duty, to art, and to the best that there 
was in art. Many times we talked about 
things; what are we going to do for the 
future; how are we going to make this 
Art Museum the prettiest one in all the 
world, not the biggest, but the prettiest. 
I gloried in his courage and his vision; 
even in the twilight of his life he had courage 
and vision that would challenge any of us. 

I recall when I last saw him. My daughter 
and I were having lunch in the Four 
Seasons Hotel in Munich, last year, and 

who should get up from the table adjoining 
but Dr. Valentiner — to come over and talk 
about North Carolina and the Museum of 
Art. I did not know, of course, he was 
there in the room, but I knew he was 
travelling in Europe. The following night, 
as we were coming in, Dr. Valentiner had 
just returned from a walk and he stopped 
by to say, "Please take time to go to the 
Museum here in Munich tomorrow and 
see a certain picture." And that was his 
last word to me. 

We have not seen him since, but his 
contribution can be unmeasured and his 
influence is limitless. They often say that 
an institution is a lengthened shadow of an 
individual; that was true in Dr. Valen- 
tiner's case. 

We have here today these distinguished 
people — Mr. Rathbone of Boston, Mr. 
Richardson of Detroit, Mr. Lee of Cleve- 
land — all of these distinguished gentlemen 
proteges of the master, and now masters 
in their own right. We appreciate their 
coming; we appreciate the others in the 
audience who have helped us so much, 
and those all over America who have seen 
the vision that Dr. Valentiner started and 
have helped this State and its Art Museum. 
I join in great praise to his memory. 



By Edwin Gill 

State Treasurer of North Carolina 

Mr. Humber, Governor Hodges, and 
distinguished guests, it is a real privilege 
and honor for me to pay tribute to my 
friend Valentiner. I will leave to others the 
evaluation of his scholarly career. I thought 
I might give you one or two sidelights. 

Valentiner was intellectually a citizen 
of the world; he was at home in Paris, 
London and Rome. He was equally at 
home in the great metropolitan centers of 
this country: New York, Detroit or Los 
Angeles; and yet, in less than three short 
years, he became a citizen of Raleigh — a 
genuine Tar Heel. This ability of Valen- 
tiner's to become a part of life wherever he 
was, I think, is one of the secrets of his 
greatness. He was deeply concerned about 
this community; he wanted it to grow in 
grace and beauty. He called me one day 
and said, "Mr. Gill, I have a very important 
matter to discuss with you." And he came 
over. He said. "I hear they are going to 
tear down another old home on Blount 
Street to make way for a filling station. I 
am not so enamoured of Victorian archi- 
tecture, but these beautiful old homes 
stand for something; they are authentic and 
they should be preserved." Another time 
he came to see me and said, "They tell me 
they are going to tear down the Dortch 
house, pave it and make a parking lot out 
of it and I am greatly distressed." I tried 
to explain to the Doctor what progress 
meant in terms of some people. He shook 
his head, he said, "It's terrible, it's just 

I mention these things to you because 
the Doctor loved Raleigh and North 
Carolina. He came here and spoke at our 
first opening, and in his address that he 
made he referred to Thomas Wolfe. He was 
so delighted to learn that Wolfe, whom he 
had admired so long, was a North Caro- 

In the Museum tonight, you will see a 
great collection of paintings that reflect the 
Doctor's very broad appreciation of art, 
and you will see there emphasized Rem- 
brandt and Frans Hals. Frans Hals, the 
extrovert, the man who loved to get around 
with good fellows and have a good time; 
Rembrandt the introvert; the man who was 
of a piritual nature. The Doctor loved both 
of them; he was an authority on both; and 
yet, I believe that Valentiner was closer to 
Rembrandt than Hals. He liked Hals, he 
liked the jovial character, he liked to take 
time out to have a good time with him as 
a comrade, but, when he withdrew within, 
to the cloister of his own soul, I believe he 
was closer to Rembrandt. 

I never heard Dr. Valentiner mention 
politics. I never heard him mention religion 
in terms of creed, but I am satisfied there 
was never a man more completely con- 
cerned with the welfare of his country or 
with the great spiritual qualities of life. 

I like to think: here was a man born in 
Germany; no man was ever a truer German 
than he was, and yet, no man was ever a 
truer American. We begged him not to go 
to Europe the last time, because we feared 


he would never return, but duty drove 
him on and, when he got there in his 
native country where he was born, and 
became ill, he literally fought with all his 
power and strength to get back to America 
— his adopted country. For what? To die 
here among the great people that he had 
learned to respect and to love! 

When he died and the news came, I 
got into a taxi here in Raleigh and the 
taxi driver, whom I know so well, threw 
these words over his shoulder as though 

they were to be, of course, expected: "I am 
so sorry the Doctor died." He did not say, 
"Dr. Valentiner,' 1 but I knew who he 
meant. When I went into the Coffee Shop 
here at the Hotel, the waitresses came up 
and they said, "Mr. Gill, we are so sorry 
Dr. Valentiner has passed." 

My friends, he was a great scholar, but 
if you will allow me and permit me to 
revive an ancient and hackneyed phrase 
that now takes on great validity, "He. 
was a scholar and a gentleman." 



By Edgar P. 
Director of Detroit 

Mr. Humber, Governor Hodges, friends 
of Dr. Valentiner, friends of the North 
Carolina Museum of Art, I have been in 
Raleigh once before and I am glad to 
come back again to see the distinguished 
Museum you have created since I was last 
here. You had not opened your Museum 
then. I must congratulate you upon some- 
thing really quite marvelous that you have 
added to your state. It is no small achieve- 

Dr. Valentiner was your first Director 
and in a sense he was also the first Director 
of my Museum, because, although the 
Detroit Museum was founded in 1 885, it 
was completely re-organized and begun 
over again when Dr. Valentiner came 
there in 1921. 

I first met him when I joined the Museum 
in 1930, and after his retirement from 
Detroit we continued to edit The Art 
Quarterly together until his death; so I had 
thirty years of memories to look back on 
and to think about as I was coming here 
to talk to you, and I had some difficulty 
in deciding what of all those memories to 

It happened that I had to go back in 
these last days and read some family letters. 
I don't like to read old letters, I don't 
think it does anyone any good to read cer- 
tain things — but I did come on an anecdote 
of my niece Anne which set me thinking. 
Anne was then about five or six. She was 
heard in violent argument out-of-doors 
with a playmate, named Henry Burrows, 

Institute of Arts 

from next door. They were disputing as 
to whether witches and fairies and giants 
and ghosts still existed in the world. Anne 
ended the argument by saying, "Well, 
maybe there aren't any witches and fairies 
anymore, but I know that there are giants 
and ghosts. I refer you, Henry Burrows, to 
Goliath and the Holy Ghost." Anne was 
wiser than she knew because there are, in 
the intellectual world in which Dr. Valen- 
tiner did his work, giants and ghosts as 
sinister as those that Anne had read about 
in fairy stories. Real ones. There are the: 
giant devisive forces of rival nationalisms 
and rival ideologies which are rending our 
civilization into fragments; and there are 
smaller, but no less iniquitous ghosts, the 
envious hostilities, the jealousies, the 
quarrels to which scholars are, alas, no 
less subject than other people. There was 
no one more impervious to small resent- 
ments than Dr. Valentiner. He had oc- 
casions, as we all do, yet he never carried 
resentments, no matter what mean things 
other people did to him. And he was com- 
pletely and wholly devoted to opposing 
the giants of nationalisms and the other 
devisive ideas of our day. 

It seemed to be very characteristic of 
him, that among European museum people 
he was looked upon as an American mu- 
seum director; among American museum 
people he was often looked upon as a 
European. Actually he was both, and he 
was neither. He believed that artists and 
indeed all creative minds create an ideal 


world of the mind which is the inheritance 
of all men. It was to that ideal world of 
the mind that he devoted his life and his 

You know that he came to this country 
fifty years ago, when Pierpont Morgan was 
re-organizing the staff of the Metropolitan 
Museum. He came there at first to be the 
Curator of Decorative Arts, but being 
Curator of Decorative Arts meant to him 
Near Eastern rugs, Italian Renaissance 
sculpture, the Dutch Old Masters — indeed 
the whole world of the arts. He was there 
from 1908 to 1914 and then, like so many 
other lives in the excitement of that time, 
he was swept into the German Army and 
served in the German Army throughout 
the war. 

I don't know if all of you are aware 
that, when Franz Marc, the most brilliant 
and promising of the young German paint- 
ers of that generation, was killed in 1917 
at Verdun, Bode, the great director of the 
Berlin Museum and a man of immense 
prestige in his whole world, decided the 
time had come to use his prestige. He 
went to his friends in the army and said, 
"We have lost Franz Marc, whom we 
could not afford to lose. We can't afford 
to lose Valentiner, too. You have got to do 
something to get him out of the front 
lines." So Valentiner was brought back to 
a job editing a paper of world opinion for 
the information of the German General 
staff. We still have, in our archives in 
Detroit, the files of that paper and, thanks 
to Bode, he survived the war. Unfortu- 
nately, he never survived some of the resent- 
ments that were aroused at that time. 
People were very emotional in that war 

and at the Metropolitan, I regret to say, 
many never forgave him and generated 
some of the irritations which he was much 
too big a man to pay any attention to. He 
came back to this country in 1921 to be 
first Advisor and then Director of my 
Museum in Detroit, which I think is his 
most characteristic creation. 

Because he had the idea that in the 
great central valley of this continent, where 
cities are so new -still hardly more than 
a hundred years old — a museum should 
be a new thing. After all, he felt, European 
museums are basically still storehouses 
for the inheritance of the past and treasure 
houses for the treasures of the past. In a 
city like Detroit the past is relatively 
unimportant; it's the future that counts. 
He felt that we deserved, in this country 
which he adopted, our share of our in- 
heritance of the great achievements of the 
world and of the ideal world of the mind, 
as a foundation for what we, too, would 
create in times to come. 

It was a very great conception, and our 
Museum, which bears his stamp, represents 
in microcosm the entire world history of 
man from the first appearance of the in- 
stinct of design in the flints of pre-historic 
men down to the present day. In so doing 
he gave a conscious philosophy to the 
American art museum which it had never 
had before, and a marvelous philosophy. 

I think that's what I would like to have 
you think about. It is as if he were saying 
to us, "This is what the world has done 
the best the world has done from the be- 
ginning down to you. You take it from 
here. Add what you can." That is our 
inheritance from him. 



By Sherman E. Lee 

Director of Cleveland Museum 

Mr. Humber, Governor Hodges, ladies 
and gentlemen, I speak as the youngest of 
us; and certainly by all odds, the brashest — 
at least at that time. 

The Doctor, and to me he was always 
the Doctor, was the most patient and 
kindly of men with the beginning student — 
and he had to be. I well remember my 
first coming to Detroit with a fresh Doctor- 
ate with little real knowledge behind it, 
and how the Doctor took this raw human 
and tried somehow or other to expose him 
to things he had never dreamt of. In the 
field of contemporary art, one of his 
greatest enthusiasms, he opened a world to 
me which was until then closed; for that I 
owe him the highest gratitude. 

By patience, I mean his taking me to the 
great Rembrandt Exhibition held at the 
Art Institute of Chicago some years ago. 
We stood in front of the Lucretia from the 
Minneapolis Museum, which I now know 
to be a great picture; and I, with my 
then accustomed reticence, said, "Oh, I 
don't like it! It's no good! It can't be 
Rembrandt!" The Doctor patiently looked 
at me, said nothing cutting as he probably 
could have, but gently and kindly ex- 
plained to me why, in his opinion, it was. 
It is pure pleasure to acknowledge such 
errors publicly; but this is not a brain- 
washing session. 

His interest in the contemporary artists 
was extraordinary, beginning with his 
enthusiasm for the German Expressionists, 
great painters he knew personally, Kirch- 

ner, Nolde, and others, and continuing to 
the most extreme contemporary expres- 
sions of today. He was the first in the 
museum field to really pay attention to 
artists such as Morris Graves and Mark 
Tobey from my native Seattle. When he 
went to California, he naturally became 
interested in the contemporary expressions 
there. Pictures by Diebenkorn hanging in 
the memorial exhibition attest to this 

His interests were so broad that one 
could hardly count them. In my specialty, 
Oriental Art, he had a very extraordinary 
eye for quality — he usually knew the very 
best from the almost good enough. Here 
he may have been hazy on details of dating 
and provenance, those things of particular 
interest to the Orientalist, but his eye for 
quality was almost infallible. Just before 
I left Detroit, we had one of our few serious 
disagreements. He wanted to buy, and we 
did buy for Detroit, a wooden sculpture 
of a monk, which he confidently attributed 
to the Kamakura Period, about the thir- 
teenth century. I was equally confident 
that it was not of the Kamakura Period; 
and in this I was right. However, I was 
quite wrong about the quality of the piece. 
Later, when in Tokyo I was able to estab- 
lish the sculpture's specific origin in a 
temple called Rakan-ji and wrote an 
article acknowledging the quality of the 
piece that I had so vehemently denied and 
which the Doctor had so rightly perceived. 

There is one final illustration, both 


humorous and significant that illustrates 
in a homely way those qualities of the 
Doctor which endeared him to me. In the 
days at Detroit, in addition to my Oriental 
duties, I was responsible for the branch 
museum of Italian Renaissance decorative 
arts, called Alger House. In one of the 
main rooms there was a long walnut table 
of the sixteenth century on which were 
exhibited three pieces of Italian Majolica. 
The Doctor preferred them displayed on 
a velvet runner; I preferred them shown 
on the natural walnut. Every morning, 

when I came into the branch museum 
where Dr. Valentiner had an apartment, 
the three Majolica bowls would be on a 
velvet runner. Every morning I carefully, 
and silently, removed the velvet runner 
and was able to look at the three pieces of 
Italian Majolica, until five o'clock — on 
the walnut. The next morning they would 
be back on the velvet runner. This went 
on for months and months though neither 
of us would speak of it and neither would 
relinquish his preference, each had respect 
for the opinion of the other. 



By Perry T. Rathbone 
Director Boston Museum of Fine Arts 

My first meeting with William Valen- 
tiner nearly twenty-five years ago was 
preceded by six weeks of excited and 
unremitting" anticipation amongst the mu- 
seum family of the Detroit Institute of 
Arts where I had recently become the 
most junior member. Detroit was recover- 
ing slowly from the first body blows of 
the depression. The Museum, perhaps 
hardest hit of all the cultural institutions 
of the city, had slowed to a near halt. 
Indeed, so drastic was the curtailment 
that its doors had closed for a while and 
the principals of the staff, including its 
Director, had been forced to resign. Now 
after an absence of two years and only on 
a half-yearly basis, the Director was about 
to come back. In spite of the fact his 
achievements were described in almost 
legendary terms, upon leaving Detroit he 
had been obliged to give up his home; his 
books and paintings were stored, his 
furniture and his piano were scattered 
amongst friends and strangers, sold for 
next to nothing or given away. In order 
to live he had had to part with two or 
three of his cherished Rembrandt drawings. 
Now he was coming back. Everything, I was 
assured, would change. The clouds would 
lift, the atmosphere brighten. Things would 

If anything, these cries of anticipation 
were an understatement. William Valen- 
tiner surpassed all my expectations as a 
human being. His bright and cheerful 
manner, his immense personal charm won 

me immediately. There was a light in his 
eye, a keenness in his address. I admired 
his aristocratic bearing. As a very young 
man myself I couldn't help but respond 
to the youthfulness implicit in his elastic 
step, his eagerness and the optimism which 
governed everything he did. All of this 
was apparent upon first meeting. 

I dwell upon this personal reminiscence 
not only because it emphasizes the power 
of Valentiner's personality, but also be- 
cause it demonstrates so clearly one of the 
most remarkable traits in his character — 
his wonderful gift for beginning again, his 
almost compulsive habit of looking for- 
ward. For him the depression was financial 
ruin, and the future was anything but 
secure in 1934, yet so positive was his own 
outlook that he generated confidence in 
everyone. Throughout his long career he 
was beset by an uncommon number of 
hardships — ranging from disasters to mere 
difficulties — setbacks, disappointments and 
reverses that would have overwhelmed a 
lesser spirit. Yet resilience and a capacity 
to respond to challenge were deeply planted 
in his nature so that he could renew his life 
repeatedly and without loss. 

We all know that Valentiner had the 
good fortune to begin his long and in- 
credibly productive activity under the 
greatest museum man of our day, Wilhelm 
von Bode, and it is perhaps not to be 
wondered at that not only were the two 
specialties of the Director of the Kaiser- 
Friedrich-Museum —Dutch painting and 


Italian sculpture — inherited by his brilliant 
understudy but, like Bode also, the ar- 
tistic expression of virtually every age 
and culture absorbed him at some time 

j in his career. Yet, unlike Bode and most 
of his generation— indeed, to an uncommon 
degree amongst his contemporaries and 
even younger men — he was always a 
sympathetic student of modern art. What 
other museum man had the understanding 

I to buy a Van Gogh drawing as early as 
1905? Who else, besides Roger Fry, as a 
member of the Metropolitan Museum staff 
before the First World War, urged the 
purchase of a Cezanne? Following his 
service in the German Army, Valentiner 
plunged into the artistic ferment of Berlin 
in the early twenties, eagerly associating 
with the most progressive artists of the 
day, buying their works in quantity, though 
poor himself, in order to encourage them, 
and applying his art-historical knowledge 
and critical acumen in writing about them 
while he was equally absorbed in his 
studies of Rembrandt. Until his death this 
sympathetic interest in the contemporary 
never flagged. It was characteristic of him 
that he bought the only painting sold in 
the first exhibition of Kirchner in this 
country, not only as an act of faith in 
Kirchner, but also to encourage the friend- 
less and struggling art dealer from Berlin, 
the late Curt Valentin, in his first New 
York show. One is not surprised to learn 
that he bequeathed this painting, "The 
Hockey Players," to the North Carolina 
Museum of Art. But his acts of kindness and 
generosity to artists in both Europe and 
America are too numerous to mention. It 
is likewise impossible to calculate his 
influence in advancing an appreciation of 
modern art in this country. The minds of 

countless people have felt the effect of his 
thinking. That the collections of many 
amateurs and museums are the richer in 
the art of our time is due to his insight as 
a critic, not to mention his liberality as 
a donor. 

One does not need to dwell upon William 
Valentiner as a connoisseur and scholar, 
nor upon his ebullience as a creative person. 
We are aware of the quality of his imagina- 
tion and the scope of his enterprise by the 
prodigality of his accomplishments as a 
museum man and by the range of his 
thought as a writer. I should not like to 
leave unmentioned, however, the personal 
virtue which is perhaps the most laudable 
and inspiring — his courage. He had the 
courage to leave the snugness of The Old 
World and place himself in the vanguard 
of the long procession of European scholars 
who have helped to season and mature our 
cultural life during the past fifty years. He 
had the courage to renounce security in 
economic crisis, he had the courage to 
pull up stakes and re-establish himself 
repeatedly —and even at the age of seventy- 
five when he came to you, he had the 
courage to espouse with conviction and 
utter loyalty unpopular ideas and move- 
ments. As a scholar he had the courage 
and intellectual honesty to change his 
opinion and to admit error. 

And speaking of error, I think on this 
occasion it would be unnatural to obscure 
a fact that we are all conscious of — that 
Valentiner was harshly criticized by his 
colleagues in this country — and quite un- 
justifiably — for writing certifications of 
works of art on the market. Here his 
ingenuous honesty did him a disservice. 
While the museums he directed profited 
greatly by the gifts he obtained by this 



means, his character was impugned by 
others as much out of professional jealousy 
as out of a mistaken sense of ethical viola- 
tion. Through his close contacts with 
dealers and the market as a builder of four 
museum collections and by virtue of his 
incomparably broad and authoritative 
knowledge in this country, it was hardly 
possible for him to avoid a practice quite in 
keeping with his European background. 
His boyish naivete toward the problems it 
raised could not inhibit him; his enthusiasm 
gave him license. As a close associate for 
many years, I can say that his motives were 
unselfish and of a purity characteristic of 
his unworldly and noble nature. 

Valentiner carried his learning and 

wisdom lightly. He was too conscious of the 
foibles and weaknesses of human nature, 
including his own, to tolerate self-impor- 
tance or vanity. He was serious about his 
own idealism; he had an inborn and deep 
concern for creativity in all its forms, almost 
to the point of worship. In other matters 
he was quick to appreciate the funny side. 
He welcomed the slightest chance to 
express his wit. 

The world knows Valentiner the scholar 
and the museum director. Those who knew 
him personally cannot forget his humanity. 
It was one of the rare privileges in the 
lives of most of us here today to have 
•known the whole man. 



By Robert Lee Humber 

President, State Art Society 

It has been said that every great man 
leaves a legacy to enrich mankind, Wil- 
liam R. Valentiner fulfilled in plentitude 
this dictum. He was one of humanity's 
gifted sons. 

His passing on September the sixth im- 
poverished the art world of an historic 
figure and the North Carolina Museum 
of Art of its cherished leader and friend. 

His life was dedicated to art. In the 
domain of letters he was an artist in words. 
His knowledge of universal art was un- 
rivalled in this generation. He was the 
author of over thirty volumes and eight 
hundred articles in his chosen field. His 
scholarly attainments are his ageless me- 
morials and his credentials of immortality. 

Yet he led an active life of executive 
responsibility, embracing a full half-century, 
as Curator of Decorative Arts at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New 
York City, and as director of the Institute 
of Arts in Detroit, the Los Angeles County 
Museum in Los Angeles, the J. Paul Getty 
Museum in Santa Monica, and the North 
Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh. Under 
his guidance were trained some of the 
most eminent museum directors of our 

He had a genius for discovering master- 

pieces lost through the centuries to art 
historians. Many a museum in America 
and Europe has been enriched by his 
intuitive excursions into the treasure houses 
of the Continent and by his remarkable 
finds. How appropriate that his last great 
discovery, made during his recent trip to 
Europe, should have been a portrait by 

Dr. Valentiner was sought by art patrons 
throughout the world for attributions to 
authenticate works of art, by scholars for 
his rare judgment in appraising the timeless 
qualities of a masterpiece, and by art 
lovers in every land because he inspired 
them through his writings to love beauty 
and to feel the spiritual uplift of an artist's 
dream reduced to canvas or carved in 

William R. Valentiner symbolized an 
epoch, the greatest fifty years yet known 
in museum history, and North Carolina 
is proud and grateful to have had his 
services as the first director of its State 
Museum of Art. 

Reprinted from NORTH CAROLINA MU- 



By Colin Agnew 

It has been suggested to me that I should 
write a few lines about Doktor Wilhelm 
Valentiner, who died in September this 
year, as I probably knew him for longer 
(since 1907) and more intimately than 
anyone else in England. I make, however, 
no attempt to write a full-scale biographical 
notice, because, owing to his extraordinary 
versatility and widespread interests and 
activities, I would need the collaboration 
of many scholars in different fields, and 
time for considerable research if I were 
to do him full justice. Also, very unluckily 
for me, our paths in life stretched in different 
directions, the greatest part of his life 
having been spent in the Middle West and 
Far West of America, with the consequence 
that for long periods I was out of touch 
with him. 

Valentiner was born in 1880 in Karls- 
ruhe and was educated at Heidelberg 
University, where his father was Professor. 
At Heidelberg, Valentiner was the pupil 
of the great art historian, Thode, and it 
was there that he obtained his Doctor's 
degree with an article on Rembrandt: 
Rembrandt auf der Lateinschule . From his 
earliest years Valentiner was a passionate 
admirer and student of the works of Rem- 
brandt. After leaving the University, about 
1905, he became the assistant to Dr. 
Hofstede de Groot at The Hague, where 
the latter was engaged on the earlier 
volumes of his great work on Dutch 
Painting. Subsequently, Valentiner was 
taken on as assistant by Dr. Wilhelm von 

Bode at The Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum, 
Berlin. Bode at once recognized the out- 
standing gifts of his young assistant, and 
encouraged him in every possible way. It 
was at this time that Valentiner published 
a quite considerable work on Rembrandt 
called Rembrandt in Bild und Wort for which 
Bode wrote the introduction. 

I was then starting a branch of our firm 
in Berlin and so had frequent opportunities 
of meeting both Bode and Valentiner. 
Other distinguished contemporaries of Val- 
entiner living in Berlin and connected with 
the Museum at that time were Hadeln, 
Voss, and Posse. By now Valentiner had 
become one of the leading authorities on 
Rembrandt and the whole Dutch seven- 
teenth-century school, and it was about 
this time that he published the volume on 
Rembrandt in the Klassiker der Kunst series. 
In 1908, on the recommendation of Bode, 
he was appointed by the Metropolitan 
Museum of New York as their first Curator 
of decorative works of art. I should add 
here that Valentiner had already shown a 
tremendous interest in and knowledge of 
tapestries, stained glass, sculpture, furni- 
ture, and minor works of art, and already 
before leaving Germany had been asked to 
undertake a catalogue of the famous Beit 
Hispano-Mauresque Collection. 

My next meeting with him was on my 
first visit to America in 1912, where I 
found that he had already achieved for 
himself an outstanding position in the 
American museum world. He had a dis- 


tinguished and charming assistant in the 
person of Durr Friedly, who had become, 
and remained, devoted to him. During 
this, his first period in America, he founded 
the journal, Art in America. In 1909 he 
organized the wonderful exhibition of 
Dutch seventeenth-century pictures for the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebrations. This was the 
first great exhibition of Old Masters ever to 
be held in America, and as such it had his- 
torical as well as high aesthetic significance. 
During this period he was producing 
catalogues of several of the great American 
collections. Among these were the volumes 
on the Dutch and Flemish paintings in the 
Johnson Collection in Philadelphia. When 
the first world war broke out in 1914, 
Valentiner was on holiday in Germany, 
and of course was obliged to remain there, 
and although loathing anything in the 
nature of war, he volunteered for the 
German army. 

For a few years after the war he remained 
in Berlin, occupying himself as a lecturer 
and as a private tutor in art history to 
various distinguished people, among them 
the Crown Princess of Prussia, with whom 
he made great friends. 

Valentiner returned to America in 1921 
where he was at first advisor to the Detroit 
Museum, and then in 1924 became Di- 
rector, a position which he held until 
1945. It was here perhaps that his most 
constructive work of all was done. It was 
during this time and due, I am sure, 
largely to his enthusiasm, that a fine new 
museum building was opened. It was he 
who encouraged many of the very rich 
Detroit citizens to make really serious col- 
lections of pictures and works of art. Among 
these collectors were Edsel Ford, the Fisher 
brothers, Ralph Booth, Mrs. Newberry, 

and many others. As Mr. E. P. Richardson, 
the present Director of the Detroit Mu- 
seum, has so justly said, "He found Detroit 
with a small provincial gallery and left it 
with a great art museum famous through- 
out the world." About 1930 with the advent 
of Nazism in Germany, Valentiner ac- 
quired American citizenship. After retiring 
from the Detroit Museum on grounds of 
age (he was then 66), with characteristic 
energy he undertook the post of Director 
and later consultant of the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art and this position 
he maintained until 1954. In 1954 he was 
also the first Director of Mr. Paul Getty's 
Museum in California. In 1955 he went 
to Raleigh in North Carolina to become 
first Director of the then new North Caro- 
lina Museum. This position he maintained 
until his death in September of this year. 
Between the wars and afterwards Valen- 
tiner produced several books and innumer- 
able articles on all branches of art history, 
particularly Italian sculpture. Among the 
books were volumes in the Klassiker der 
Kunst series on Frans Hals, Pieter de Hooch, 
and what Valentiner described as "re-found 
Rembrandts"; also an excellent book on 
Nicolaes Maes. From 1938 to 1949 he was 
Editor of the Art Quarterly. 

During the period that he was at Detroit 
and in California, Valentiner organized 
exhibitions devoted to various Old Masters: 
Rembrandt, Rubens, and Frans Hals, and 
also one on the School of Leonardo. These 
were done on a scale never hitherto at- 
tempted in America. For the New York 
World's Fair in 1939, he served as Director 
General of the "Masterpieces of Art" ex- 

Throughout his life he had made notes 
with the idea of some day publishing his 


memoirs, but, alas, he was not to live long 
enough to put them together for publica- 
tion. He came to Paris and London this 
summer, but was obviously in a precarious 
state of health, though his conversation was 
as lively and gay as ever. In Paris his 
doctor urged him to return immediately to 
America, but nothing would stop him from 
making a further journey to Munich where 
he wanted to do some research work for an 
article he had in hand. There he was taken 
very seriously ill and after weeks in hospital, 
was only just able to return to New York 
where he died on Saturday, 6th September. 

He left behind him a daughter and some 

Valentiner was, in the truest sense, a 
man of noble character and of most 
distinguished mind. He had also to an 
extraordinary degree, the power in conver- 
sation of stimulating enthusiasm for any 
work of art in which he was interested. 
His knowledge of almost all branches of 
art seemed limitless. 

I regard it as one of the privileges of my 
life to have been his friend. 

AZINE, December 1958, p. 442. 


By Hans Hess 

Sir, allow me to add a few lines to the 
distinguished obituary notice on the death 
of Professor W. R. Valentiner contributed 
by Colin Agnew to your December 1958 

In doing justice to the late Professor 
Valentiner's outstanding qualities, one great 
achievement of his life should also be 
emphasized: his active participation in the 
battle for the acceptance of Modern art. 
Professor Valentiner joined (in Berlin in 
1918) the revolutionary Novembergruppe 
which comprised all the leading artists and 
intellectuals in Berlin including the painters 
of the Sturm Kreis and those who were to 
form the Bauhaus. After he returned to 

America he was the first to acquire for his 
museum in Detroit the works of the German 
Expressionists. He thus early on (sic) laid 
the foundations of the now wide-spread ac- 
ceptance of central European art in the 
United States. 

He was one of the few great scholars of 
traditional art whose perception included 
the understanding of the art of his own 
time. This aspect of his life and work also 
needs recognition, and it is for this part 
of his work as much as for his gifts as a 
curator and scholar that he will be re- 
membered in the United States and Europe. 

AZINE, January 7959, p 28. 


Eduard Plietzsch 

Der aus einer alten deutschen Gelehr- 
tenfamilie stammende Wilhelm Reinhold 
Valentiner wurde 1880 in Karlsruhe ge- 
boren, wuchs aber in Heidelberg auf, wo 
der Vater Universitatsprofessor und Direk- 
tor der Sternwarte war. In Heidelberg 
erwarb Wilhelm R. Valentiner bei Henry 
Thode mit seiner Arbeit "Rembrandt auf 
der Lateinschule 11 den Doktorgrad. Schon 
als junger Student hatte er durch iiber- 
ragende Begabung und liebenswerte men- 
schliche Eigenschaften so viel Zuneigung 
erlangt, dass man seiner im Heidelberger 
Kunsthistorischen Institut noch jahrelang 
immer wieder mit besonderer Verehrung 
gedachte. Dasselbe wiederholte sich bald 
darauf in Holland, wo er im Haag als 
Assistent Hofstede de Groots den ersten 
Band von dessen grossem Katalogwerk 
bearbeitet hat, und ebenso in Berlin, als 
er an den Museen tatig war. Wenn spater 
einmal Rainer Maria Rilke nach der 
ersten Begegnung mit Valentiner ihm 
spontan schrieb: "Sie wiederzusehen, ware 
mir die fuhlbarste Freude", und eine 
andere Briefstelle lautet: "Der Versuch, 
Sie in Berlin wiederzusehen, wird sicher zu 
dem Ehesten und Herzlichsten gehoren, 
das ich dort unternehmen werde", dann 
waren solche Ausserungen des immer sehr 
hoflichen Briefschreibers Rilke in diesem 
Falle bestimmt aufrichtig gemeint. Welch 
faszinierende Wirkung von Valentiners 
Personlichkeit ausging, dafiir nur ein Beis- 
piel: ihm wurde in Berlin der grosse 
japanische Kunstsammler Matsukata vor- 
gestellt, mit dem er ein kurzes Gesprach 

begann. Wahrend der Unterhaltung, die 
kaum zehn Minuten dauerte, war Matsu- 
kata von Valentiners unendlich sympa- 
thischen menschlichen Eigenschaften, von 
der iiberlegenen Klugheit seines Urteils, von 
seinem ebenso liebenswiirdigen, wie bes- 
cheidenem Wesen dermassen beeindruckt, 
dass er ihn auf der Stelle einlud, nach 
Japan zu reisen und dort sein Gast zu sein 
—eine Einladung, die iibrigens Valentiner 
wegen anderer Verpflichtungen ablehnen 

Schon als 28jahriger war er auf Emp- 
fehlung Wilhelm v. Bodes an das grosste 
und bedeutendste Museum Amerikas, an 
das Metropolitan-Museum in New York, 
als "Curator" berufen worden. Merk- 
wiirdigerweise aber nicht an die Gemalde- 
galerie, obwohl der spater als Gemalde- 
Kenner weltberiihmt gewordene Forscher 
durch seine friihen Arbeiten iiber Rem- 
brandt bereits vorteilhaft bekannt geworden 
war, sondern an die Kunstgewerbeab- 
teilung. Diese Berufung erscheint allerdings 
weniger sonderbar, wenn man feststellt, 
dass Valentiner 1906, kurz nach Abschluss 
des Universitatsstudiums, den Katalog der 
spanisch-maurischen Fayencen der Lon- 
doner Sammlung Beit verfasst hat. Es muss 
iiberhaupt ausdrucklich hervorgehoben 
werden, dass er nicht bloss ein "Spezialist" 
fur niederlandische Malerei war, sondern 
im Sinne seines grossen Lehrmeisters und 
Vorbildes Wilhelm v. Bode als "Uni- 
versalist" sich wissenschaftlich mit den 
heterogensten Gebieten der Kunstfors- 
chung, mit primitiven niederlandischen 


Meistern, mit italienischer Plastik, asiatis- 
chen Teppichen usw. beschaftigt hat. 
Ausserdem war er ein leidenschaftlicher 
Verehrer der modernen Kunst, fur die er 
sich mit jener jugendlichen Begeisterungs- 
fahigkeit, die er sich bis ins Greisenalter 
bewahrt hat, unermiidlich einsetzte. Die 
deutschen Expressionisten, vor allem den 
von ihm hochverehrten Schmidt-Rottluff, 
propagierte er in Amerika schon zu einer 
Zeit, als er damit noch auf Widerstand 

Bei Kriegsausbruch 1914 weilte Valen- 
tiner auf Urlaub in Deutschland. Er 
meldete sich freiwillig zum Heer, und ein 
wunderlicher Zufall fiigte es, dass der ihn 
ausbildende Reserveoffizier der Maler 
Franz Marc war. In seinen "Briefen aus 
dem Felde" (wo Valentiners Name durch 
einen Druckfehler entstellt ist) berichtet 
Franz Marc spater seiner Frau u. a.: 
"Valentiner ist ein sehr feiner, hochge- 
bildeter Mensch, dessen Verkehr mir eine 
grosse Wohltat ist." 

Nach 1918 war an die Wiederaufnahme 
der Museumstatigkeit in Amerika zunachst 
nicht zu denken, obwohl von Amerika aus 
die Beziehungen zu Wilhelm R. Valentiner 
uberraschend schnell wieder angebahnt 
wurden. Als Privatgelehrter lebte er meh- 
rere Jahre in Berlin, unternahm grosse 
Studienreisen ins Ausland und wurde auch 
schon wieder gelegentlich als Kunstexperte 
nach den Vereinigten Staaten gerufen. 

Unter seinen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten 
von bleibendem Wert stehen jene iiber 
hollandische Malerei, vor allem iiber Rem- 
brandt, obenan. 1907 gab er den von ihm 
revidierten Band samtlicher Gemalde Rem- 
brandts in der Reihe der "Klassiker der 
Kunst" heraus, dem die Bande iiber Frans 
Hals und Pieter de Hooch and spater die 

Veroffentlichungen der Zeichnungen Rem- 
brandts folgten, von denen bisher leider nur 
zwei, allerdings stattliche und gehaltvolle 
Bande erscheinen konnten. Daneben ver- 
offentlichte er zahlreiche whsenschaftliche 
Beitrage nicht nur iiber niederlandische 
Malerei in deutschen, amerikanischen. hol- 
landischen und englischen Zeitschriften und 
war in Amerika Mitherausgeber der seriosen 
Kunstzeitschrift "Art in America", spater 
"The Art Quarterly". 

Wer Gelegenheit gehabt hat, mit Valen- 
tiner eine Zeitlang gemeinsam an einem 
grosseren kunsthistorischen Werk zu ar- 
beiten, der war bei jeder Besprechung im- 
mer wieder aufs neue durch seine origi- 
nellen Einfalle und die TrefTsicherheit 
seines Urteils uberrascht — und manchmal 
auch iiber seine ebenso geistvolle, wie 
kiihne Kcmbinationsfahigkeit verwundert. 
Einige seiner allzu kiihnen Zuschreibungen 
haben auf die Dauer der Nachprufung nicht 
standgehalten, und wegen seiner 1922 
herausgegebenen Publikation wiedergefun- 
dener Werke Rembrandts wurde er so 
scharf attackiert, dass sich der friedfertige 
Gelehrte, hilfreich sekundiert von Hofstede 
de Groot, heftig zur Wehr setzen musste. 
Da ihm fast jedes alte Gemalde, das 
auch nur entfernt irgendetwas mit Rem- 
brandt zu tun zu haben schien, in Europa 
und Amerika zur Begutachtung vorgelegt 
wurde, so ist es begreiflich, wenn in einigen 
seltenen Fallen die Entdeckerfreude blind- 
lings mit ihm durchging. Aber dieses Buch, 
in dem Valentiner zahlreiche, zweifellos 
echte, zum Teil recht bedeutende Gemalde 
Rembrandts zum ersten Male veroffent- 
lichen konnte, hat auch insofern Wert, als 
manche problematischen Bilder sozusagen 
als Rohmaterial der Kunstforschung zur 


Diskussion und zu Vergleichszwecken dar- 
geboten wurden. 

1924 erfolgte die Berufung Valentiners 
an das Museum zu Detroit, dessen Neubau 
wahrend seiner Direktionszeit entstand. 
Nach einigen Jahren kehrte er nach Berlin 
zuriick, siedelte aber bald wieder nach 
Amerika iiber, wo er jahrelang Museums- 
direktor in Los Angeles und seit 1955 in 
Raleigh im Staate North Carolina gewesen 

Als Wilhelm R. Valentiner im vergan- 
genen Friihjahr in Paris zu seinem all- 
jahrlichen Europa-Urlaub eintraf, der fiir 
den rastlos tatigen, mit Gesuchen um 
Gutachten iiberhauften Forscher leider 
niemals eine ruhevolle Ferienzeit war, 
schrieb ich ihm, er mbge diesmal sich Ruhe 
gonnen und in den Mussestunden endlich 
seine Lebenserinnerungen vollenden, von 
denen man nur kurze Bruchstiicke kannte. 
In seiner hastigen Handschrift, der man 
das Gehetzte des mit Arbeit iiberlasteten 
Mannes ansah, anwortete er: "Die Me- 
moiren sind noch Stiickwerk bisher: wie 
weit ich damit komme, weiss der Himmel". 
Die Vorsehung liess es leider nicht mehr 

dazu kommen. In Munchen erkrankte er 
schwer, und Anfang September ist er in 
New York im Alter von 78 Jahren gestorben. 
Dass seine Lebenserinnerungen, die sich 
iiber mehr als ein halbes Jahrhundert ers- 
treckten, die seine Tatigkeit an den Museen 
von Berlin, New York, Detroit, Los Angeles 
und Raleigh umfassten, in denen er von 
seiner jahrzehntelangen Kenntnis des inter- 
nationalen Kunsthandels hatte berichten, 
von seinen Begegnungen mit Forschern, 
Sammlern, Kiinstlern und bedeutenden 
Personlichkeiten des geistigen und auch 
gesellschaftlichen Lebens aus aller Welt 
hatte erzahlen konnen, nun ungeschrieben 
bleiben ist tief bedauerlich. Allen, die 
Valentiner von Jugend an kannten, bleibt 
er als einer der liebenswertesten, giitigsten 
und hilfsbereitesten Menschen im Ge- 
dachtnis. Aus den kunst-und kulturgeschi- 
chtlich hochinteressanten Memoiren hatten 
aber auch ihm personlich Fernstehende 
erkennen konnen, welch edler und lauterer 
Mann dieser Doktor Wilhelm R. Valentiner 

Reprint from DIE WELTKUNST, Munich, 
October 1958. 


Friedrich Winkler 

Bald nach der Ruckkehr von einer langen 
Europareise ist W. R. Valentiner Anfang 
September 1958 in New York im Alter von 
78 Jahren gestorben. Ein schwerer Herz- 
anfall hatte ihn im Juni in Miinchen aufs 
Krankenlager geworfen, doch war er — 
wie immer — guten Mutes. Er wollte noch 
einiges schaffen, sagte er, man giaubte an 
seinen Optimismus, wie man von jeher an 
ihn geglaubt hatte. Denn Valentiner hatte 
in dem Auf und Ab der Jahrzehnte der 
ersten Jahrhunderthalfte ein geriitteltes 
Mass von Schwierigkeiten wieder und 
wieder gemeistert. Es war nicht seine Art, 
viel Aufhebens davon zu machen, wie er 
iiberhaupt eine bewundernswerte Nichtach- 
tung der Wechselfalle des eigenen Schick- 
sals besass und ganz in der Verfolgung von 
wissenschaftlichen und musealen Planen 
aufging, die sieh ihm fortwahrend neu 
stellten und die er zielbewusst und zah 
verwirklichte. Im hohen Alter noch zu der 
Leitung des Museums in Raleigh (North 
Carolina) berufen, des ersten offentlichen 
Museums in den Vereinigten Staaten, das 
mit Staatsmitteln gegriindet worden war 
und unterhalten wird, plante er, demselben 
eine Skulpturensammlung hinzuzufiigen, 
die von der altesten bis in die jiingste Zeit 
reichen sollte. Es bestand aus einer sehr 
ansehnlichen Gemaldegalerie mit guten 
Werken aus fast alien Perioden der Mal- 
kunst, aus der Valentiner eine Reihe 
Fehlkaufe ausmerzte, die er durch wichtige 
Einzelstiicke ersetzte. Das bedeutende Friih- 
werk Rembrandts, "Die Wut des Ahasver", 
vielleicht die gewichtigste Arbeit des jungen 

Malers, der kleine Hieronymus aus der 
Kolner Sammlung R. v. Schnitzler, das 
einzigartige Friihwerk Stephan Lochners, 
sind darunter. 

Das waren Valentiners letzte Taten. 
Vorher war er in Los Angeles im County 
Museum und im Getty Museum in Cali- 
fornien tatig gewesen. Die grossten Ver- 
dienste hat er sich um das Museum in 
Detroit erworben, das durch ihn in dem 
Jahrzehnt nach dem ersten Weltkrieg eine 
Fiille allererster Bilder und Skulpturen 
bekommen hat. Die Altniederlander (Jan 
van Eyck, David, Bruegel usw.) und die 
hollandischen Landschaftsmaler des 17. 
Jahrhunderts liberraschen durch die Reich- 
haltigkeit und Geschlossenheit innerhalb 
einer Sammlung, die ebenso durch ihre 
italienischen Kunstwerke (Tizian, Correg- 
gio, Renaissanceskulpturen usw.) ein- 
drucksvoll wirkt. 

Vor dem ersten Weltkrieg war Valentiner 
eine Reihe von Jahren auf Empfehlung 
Bodes Leiter der Kunstgewerblichen Ab- 
teilung des Metropolitan Museums in New 
York gewesen. Er hatte bei Hofstede de 
Groot und ihm ein paar Jahre assistiert, 
nachdem er seine Studien bei Thode mit 
einer Arbeit iiber "Rembrandt und seine 
Umgebung" (1905) abgeschlossen hatte. 
Sie machte mit Rembrandt als dem "haus- 
lichen" Maler bekannt, der vom engsten 
Familienkreise seine Inspirationen empfing. 
Viele seiner Portrats wurden als Darstel- 
lungen seiner Eltern, Saskias, Hendrikjes, 
Titus' ermittelt. 

Vor seinem Weggang aus Europa hatte 


Valentiner seine Vertrautheit mit kunstge- 
werblichen Dingen durch den Katalog der 
spanisch-maurischen Fayencen der Samm- 
lung Alfred Beit (1908) und durch eine 
Studie fiber hollandische Fliesenkeramik 
dokumentiert. Er blieb in Amerika seiner 
alten Liebe zu Bildern treu und hat zu der 
Bevorzugung italienischer und niederlan- 
discher Gemalde durch die amerikanischen 
Sammler wie zur Bildung von Skulpturen- 
sammlungen dort viel beigetragen. Noch 
vor dem ersten Weltkrieg erschien sein 
dreibandiger Katalog der umfangreichen 
Sammlung Johnson in Philadelphia (der 
italienische Band in Zusammenarbeit mit 
Berenson), spater die der Sammlungen 
Goldman (1922) und Widener (1923). In 
Detroit veranstaltete er regelmassig Aus- 
stellungen grosser Maler: 50 Bilder von van 
Dyck 1929, Rembrandt 1930. 50 von Hals 
1935, 60 von Rubens 1936. Auf diese Weise 
brachte er Bilder in die dort entstehenden 
Sammlungen. 1927 war der Ankauf eines 
besonders schonen Rembrandt, der lieb- 
lichen Heimsuchung von 1640 (ehem. 
Herzog von Westminster), gegliickt. Die 
umfassendste Ausstellung, deren Durch- 
fiihrung ihm anvertraut wurde, war die 
dem zweiten Weltkrieg unmittelbar vor- 
angehende der grossartigen Gemalde und 
Bildwerke aller Art auf der New Yorker 
Weltausstellung 1939, iiber die mehrere 
Kataloge unterrichten. 

Valentiner war literarisch sehr produktiv. 
Er schrieb rasch und ideenreich, nicht ohne 
Anmut und jeder echten kiinstlerischen 
Ausserung aufgeschlossen. Sein Interes- 
sengebiet war umfassend und gait nicht 
zuletzt auch der antiken Skulptur. Soviel 
ich weiss, gibt es keine Bibliographie seiner 
Schriften, obwohl unter ihnen Publika- 
tionen uberraschender Funde sind. Am 

bekanntesten ist er als Autor mehrerer 
Bande der Klassiker der Kunst geworden. 
Wie die meisten der weitverbreiteten Reihe 
war auch der Rembrandtband anfangs in 
Handen von unberufenen Bearbeitern. 
Valentiner wird die 3. sehr verbesserte 
Auflage des Gemaldebandes (1909) ver- 
dankt, zu der er zweimal Nachtrage lieferte 
(Wiedergefundene Gemalde 1921 und 
1923). Auch die Bande Frans Hals und 
Pieter de Hooch sind von ihm. Die auf 
drei Bande veranschlagte Edition der 
Rembrandtzeichnungen innerhalb dersel- 
ben Reihe, zu der er die Mittel selbst 
beschaffte, ist infolge Vernichtung des 
Materials des dritten Bandes nicht iiber die 
ersten beiden hinaus gediehen (1925, 1934). 
Man wird sie trotz Benesch's umfassender 
Ausgabe der Zeichnungen noch immer mit 
Nutzen studieren, man mochte ihr sogar 
einen Vollender des dritten Bandes wiin- 
schen, weil sie sich durch ihre Anlage 
empfiehlt. Die zahlreichen Rembrandts in 
Amerika hat er in einem selbstandigen 
Buch (1931) behandelt. Auch Nic. Maes 
widmete er eine aufschlussreiche Schrift 

Ein Lieblingsgebiet Valentiners war die 
italienische Plastik. Hier war er neben 
Bode wohl der erfolgreichste Erforscher. 
Die Funde publizierte er meist in Zeit- 
schriften. Biicher iiber Tino da Camaino 
(1935) und Michelangelo (The late years of 
Michel Angelo, 1914) sind Nebenfriichte 
seines unablassigen Suchens. Zumal im 
Alter hat er sich viel mit italienischer 
Plastik beschaftigt. 

Wenn irgend einer die ihm nach dem 
zweiten Weltkriege verliehene Auszeich- 
nung der Bundesregierung verdient hat, 
ist er es gewesen. Er war spat Amerikaner 
geworden und hat zeitlebens durch sein 


Wirken dort der deutschen Wissenschaft 
gedient. Die von ihm geleiteten Zeitsch- 
riften Art in America (ab 1913) und Art 
Quarterly (ab 1938) vertreten kenner- 
schaftliche Arbeit im Sinne Bodes trotz 
beschrankter Mittel. Er hat zahlreiche 
Werke zeitgenossischer deutscher Kiinstler 
fiir sich erworben, gab Biicher iiber den 
Bildhauer Kolbe (1922) und Schmit- 
Rottluff (1922) heraus und regte ameri- 
kanische Mitarbeiter wie Rathbone in 
Boston an, expressionistisehe Kunst zu 
sammeln. Dass das Museum of Modern Art 
in New York eine grosse Ausstellung 
deutscher Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts 
veranstaltete, dass Biicher von Kuhn (iiber 
Expressionisten in der Harvard Collection 
in Cambridge) und Zigrosser (iiber ex- 
pressionistisehe Graphik, 1957) erschienen, 
diirft indirekt nicht zuletzt den An- 
regungen zu verdanken sein, die er gegeben 
hat. Kurz vor seinem Tode iiberraschte 
er uns mit einer Kirchner-Ausstellung in 
Raleigh (Januar 1958), die einen erstaun- 
lichen Reichtum von hervorragenden 
Werken des fuhrenden deutschen Meisters 
in amerikanischen Sammlungen offenbart. 

Valentiner entstammte einer Gelehrten- 
familie und der Wissenschaft war er immer 
hingegeben. Aber nichts war ihm ferner als 
Professionalismus, nicht als Gelehrter noch 
als Museumsleiter; er war vor allem ein 

urbaner, charmanter Mensch, hilfsbereit 
und enthusiastisch, aber in seinem Urteil 
geziigelt von seinem universalen Uberblick 
iiber Menschen und Dinge. Man hat ihm 
eine allzu grosse Weitherzigkeit in seinen 
Zuschreibungen vorgeworfen, er hat wie 
wir alle geirrt. Keiner revidierte sein Urteil 
unbefangener und bereitwilliger. Was wol- 
len die Fehlurteile besagen angesichts der 
fruchtbaren Erkenntnisse, die er in iiber 
SOjahriger Forscherarbeit mit leichter Hand 
austeilte. Auch die gewichtigsten Beobach- 
tungen vermittelte er mit iiberlegener 
Gelassenheit und sozusagen Weltlaufigkeit. 
Er hatte Erinnerungen niedergeschrieben, 
die leider zum grossten Teil von ihm 
vernichtet zu sein scheinen. Was hatte er, 
der viele fur sich einzunehmen wusste, 
ohne urn sie zu werben, uns von seinen 
Begegnungen mit Bodenhausen, Bode, Hof- 
stede de Groot, den amerikanischen Kunst- 
freunden berichten konnen! So bleibt uns 
ausser seinen Leistungen nur die Erinner- 
ung an einen besonders liebenswerten, 
lauteren Menschen, dessen Reiz in einem 
unvergesslichen, natiirlichen Charme, in 
einer noblen Haltung und einer inneren 
Unabhangigkeit gegeniiber den Dingen 
dieser Welt bestand. 

Reprint from KUNSTCHRONIK {Special 
Supplement), 1959. 


Gedachtnis-Austellung in Raleigh, N. C. 

Fritz W 

Als das North Carolina Museum of Art 
in Raleigh 1957 Vorbereitungen traf, eine 
Ausstellung zur Ehrung seines ersten Direk- 
tors Wilhelm Reinhold Valentiner (1880 — 
1 958) zu veranstalten, sollte dies lediglich 
die 50jahrige Tatigkeit eines grossen deut- 
schen Kunstgelehrten im Dienste amerika- 
nischer Museen umfassen. Durch seinen 
Tod im letzten September ist die Jubilaum- 
sausstellung zu einer Gedachtnisausstellung 

Das Problem einer solchen Veranstaltung 
war nicht einfach zu losen. Bei einem 
Kiinstler zeigt man den Ablauf seiner 
Entwicklung in einer retrospektiven Schau, 
die alle Einfliisse und Epochen seines 
Schaffens aufzeigen. Unsere Museen haben 
darin eine vortreffliche Routine entwickelt, 
wie die Picasso-Ausstellungen anlasslich 
seines 75. Geburtstages bewiesen haben. 
Wie aber zeigt man den schopferischen 
Geist eines Gelehrten, der zu den grossten 
Museumsleitern unserer Zeit zu zahlen ist 
und dem ganz Amerika eine unendliche 
Bereicherung seiner Kunstschatze zu ver- 
danken hat? 

Als Schuler von Henry Thode und Carl 
Neumann in Heidelberg empfing Valen- 
tiner das wissenschaftliche Riistzeug der 
neuen kunstgeschichtlichen Methoden, die 
um die Jahrhundertwende der Kunst- 
forschung neue Wege wiesen. Nachdem er 
1904 seine Dissertation iiber "Rembrandt 
und seine Umgebung" geschrieben hat, 
holte ihn Hofstede de Groot nach Holland, 
um mit ihm die deutsche Ausgabe von 


Rembrandts Handzeichnungen vorzuber- 
eiten (1905) sowie ein Werk iiber die 
hollandischen Meister des 17. Jahrhunderts 
(1906). Dann kommt er zu Wilhelm von 
Bode als Assistent an das Kaiser-Friedrich- 
Museum. Hier erwirbt er die ersten Kennt- 
nisse der Museumstechnik als Kurator 
der dekorativen Kiinste. Bode empfiehlt 
ihn an J. P. Morgan, den damaligen Prasi- 
denten des Metropolitan Museums in New 
York. So beginnt 1908 seine amerikanische 

Als Kenner der niederlandischen Kunst 
wird er in Amerika zum Gegenpol von 
Bernard Berenson, der sich besonders auf 
die Kiinstler der italienischen Renaissance 
spezialisiert hatte. Er erweckt bei den 
Amerikanern die Liebe zur Kunst des 
Nordens, besonders der Hollander und 
Flamen. 1908 schreibt er fur die "Klassiker 
der Kunst" die erste massgebende Mono- 
graphic iiber Rembrandt, dem 1921 ein 
weiterer Band iiber Frans Hals folgt. 
1914 schickt ihn das Metropolitan Museum 
auf eine Einkaufsreise nach Europa. In 
Deutschland wird er vom Krieg iiberrascht 
und meldet sich zum Heeresdienst Sein 
Feldwebel ist der Maler Franz Marc. Die 
junge deutsche Kunst begeistert ihn. Er 
tritt fur die neue Kiinstlergeneration ein, 
sammelt ihre Werke, schreibt iiber sie 
viele Monographien und Zeitschriftenbei- 

Die deutschfeindliche Einstellung des 
Metropolitan Museums verzogert seine 
Riickkehr nach dem Krieg. Als eine 


Geschichte des Museums im Druck 
erscheint, ist darin seine aufbauende 
Tatigkeit nicht mit einem Wort erwahnt. 

Von Deutschland aus wird er Berater des 
Detroit Institute of Art. Er kauft fur dieses 
Museum den ersten Matisse und Bilder von 
van Gogh, Degas, Monet usw. Sein Gesch- 
mack ist zum grossen Teil verantwortlich 
fur die Kunsterziehung der amerikanischen 
Museen. 1923 veranstaltet er die erste 
Schau deutscher Expressionisten in Amerika 
und wirbt die ersten Freunde fur die neue 
deutsche Kunst. Von 1924 — 44 halt er die 
Direktorenstelle des Museums in Detroit 
inne und macht dies zu einem der fort- 
schrittlichsten Museen des Landes. Grosse 
amerikanische Sammler lassen von ihm ihre 
Kollektionen katalogisieren. Friihere Zu- 
schreibungen an grosse Kiinstlernamen 
werden oft korrigiert zum grossen Leid- 
wesen der Besitzer. Valentiners Urteil wird 
aber als endgiiltig anerkannt. Viele Sam- 
mler lassen sich von ihm beraten und 
kaufen Kunstwerke, die sie dann den 
Museen iibereignen. Damit hat W. R. 
Valentiner wesentlich zur Bereicherung des 
amerikanischen Kunstgutes beigetragen. Er 
arrangiert grosse Ausstellungen, die das 
Wissen um die Kunst erweitern. Rem- 
brandt, Frans Hals, hollandische Genreund 
Landschaftsmalerei, van Dyck, Rubens, 
italienische Gotik- und Renaissance-Skulp- 
turen, Leonardo da Vinci, Rembrandt und 
seine Schiiler sind nur einige wenige 
Themen, die er im Verlaufe seiner Mu- 
seumskarriere behandelt hat. 

1926 kauft er als erster Werke der 
prakolumbischen und der Negerkunst fur 
ein amerikanisches Kunstmuseum. 

Im Alter von 66 Jahren geht er an das 
Los Angeles County Museum. Gleichzeitig 
gibt er eine Kunstzeitschrift "Art Quart- 

erly ,, heraus. 1951 beginnt er Kunstwerke 
fur das neu zu grundende Museum in 
Raleigh, North Carolina, zu sammeln. 1954 
wird er in Santa Monica, Cal., Direktor 
des Museums von Paul Getty, des reichsten 
Olmagnaten der Welt. Sparer iibernimmt 
er im Alter von 75 Jahren die Direktion 
des North Carolina Museum of Art. 
Anlasslich der vielen Neuerwerbungen und 
der Ausstellungen, die er fur die ver- 
schiedenen Museen verwirklicht, schreibt 
er mehr als 600 wisenschaftliche Beitrage, 
die in den Museumspublikationen, in Bu- 
chern und Zeitschriften erscheinen. 1957 
erhalt er von Bundesprasident Heuss das 
Verdienstkreuz erster Klasse. 1958 revidiert 
er seinen Rembrandt fur eine Neuauflage 
in den Klassikern der Kunst. Kurz darauf 
stirbt er in New York an einer Lungen- 

So endet ein erfolgreiches und arbeit- 
sames Leben, dem durch die Gedachtni- 
sausstellung in Raleigh ein wiirdiger Tribut 
gezollt wird. Um seine Tatigkeit bildhaft 
in Erscheinung treten zu lassen, hat man 
eine gigantische Ausstellung zusammenge- 
bracht. Sie besteht aus Leihgaben all der 
Museen, die er durch seine Ankaufe grosser 
Meisterwerke bereichert hat, aus Werken 
aus Privatbesitz, fur deren Ankauf er 
verantwortlich ist und die letzten Endes 
einmal den amerikanischen Museen zufallen 
werden, dazu kommt noch seine eigene 
Sammlung alter und moderner Kunst, di 
immer wieder seinen untriiglichen Gesch- 
mack und sein Gefiihl fur hochste Qualitat 
erkennen lasst und die sich auf viele Gebiete 
erstreckt: von herrlichen Rembrandtzeich- 
nungen, persischen Miniaturen, Skulpturen 
von Marcks, Kolbe und Lehmbruck bis zu 
Gemalden von Nolde, Rolfs, Heckel und 
Schmidt-Rottluff. Neun Portrats von Wil- 


helm Reinhold Valentiner zeugen von 
einer gewissen Eitelkeit, die er niemals 
ganz unterdriicken konnte. 

Anlasslich dieser Ausstellung werden dem 
Museum in Raleigh zu Ehren von W. R. 
Valentiner viele Kunstwerke geschenkt, die 
den Kern dieser jungen Sammlung wesent- 
lich erweitern. 

Ein schwerer 350 Seiten umfassender 
Katalog in Quarto enthalt ca. 200 Illustra- 
tionen und Farbtafeln sowie einen Teil von 

Valentiners Autobiographie, die seine Ent- 
wicklung und Tatigkeit zwischen 1890 und 
1920 behandelt. Ferner findet man darin 
einen bisher unveroffentlichten Vortrag 
fiber Rembrandt und Frans Hals, eine 
ausfuhrliche Bibliographic aller seiner Sch- 
riften, sowie eine Wiirdigung seines Schaf- 
fens, die James B. Byrnes, der jetzige 
Direktor des Museums geschrieben hat. 

Reprint from DIE WELTKUNST, Munich, 
June 7959. 




Tragli storici dell'arte della mia genera- 
zione sara sempre ricordato W. R. Valen- 
tiner, un celebrato conoscitore e un ricer- 
catore infaticabile soprattutto nei campi 
della pittura olandese del Seicento e della 
scultura italiana dal Duecento al Cin- 

Nato a Karlsruhe il 2 maggio 1880, c 
morto a New York il 6 settembre 1958. 
Dopo aver studiato alia Universita di 
Heidelberg, divenne assistente di Hofstede 
de Groot e di Bode. Nel 1908 lascib la 
Germania per New York per divenire 
"curator" delle arti decorative nel Metro- 
politan Museum. Trovandosi in Germania 
nel 1914, partecipb alia guerra, e torno 
negli Stati Uniti nel 1921. Consigliere e 
poi direttore del museo di Detroit sino al 
1944, creb non solo uno dei maggiori 
musei d'America, ma una serie di collezioni 
famose come quella dei Ford, dei Fisher 
etc. Lasciata Detroit fu chiamato come 
consigliere al Los Angeles County Museum 
dal 1946 al 1954, e come direttore del North 

Carolina Museum dal 1955 alia morte. 

Si pub dire che ovunque Valentiner si 
fermava un nuovo museo sorgeva. In- 
numerevoli furono le esposizioni da lui 
organizzate fra cui nel 1939 la grande 
mostra dei capolavori nella New York 
World Fair. E numerosi furono i suoi libri 
su Rembrandt, Pieter de Hooch, Franz 
Hals, etc. Le ricerche sulla scultura italiana 
sono state forse la maggior passione di 
Valentiner negli ultimi anni e Commentari 
ricorda con riconoscenza il suo Simone 
Talenti scultore pubblicato nel 1957. Uomo 
di grande bonta, di una cultura vastissima, 
pronto a capire l'arte moderna (e sulla 
scultura pubblicb anche una assai notevole 
teoria — Origins of Modern Sculpture — nel 
1946), un ricercatore nato, ingenuo e 
proveno, Valentiner e stato una delle 
personality che piu hanno onorato la storia 
delTarte negli ultimi cinquanta anni. 

Reprint from COMMENTARI, Rome, Oc- 
tober-December 1958. 



By Germain Seligman 

It was when I accompanied my father to 
the United States for the first time, in the 
winter of 1913-1914, that I met Dr. Wil- 
liam R. Valentiner at the Metropolitan 
Museum. He and other curators of the 
museum were all hard at work at the task 
of unpacking and cataloguing the contents 
of the more than three hundred and fifty 
cases of works of art from the collection 
of the late J. Pierpont Morgan which my 
father had recently dispatched to America 
just before the death of the great collector. 

William Valentiner, as he looked then, 
is still fresh in my memory, as he handled 
the beautiful objects and discussed them 
eagerly with my father, through whose 
hands so many of them had passed. Tall, 
erect, and slim, with a trick of throwing 
back his head as though looking down from 
a height; he was a man who changed little 
in physical appearance over the passing 

I did not see him again until some time 
in the "twenties," and meantime much had 
happened to both of us; World War I had 
called me to the colors of France and Wil- 
liam to the colors of Germany. Now we 
were both back in New York; he, among 
other occupations, working on the cata- 
logues of two great collections, the Joseph E. 
Widener and the Clarence H. Mackay and 
I going about the business of the firm. This 
second encounter was perforce somewhat 
lacking in warmth, as it was difficult for 
each of us to ignore the fact that not long 
before we had been on opposite sides of a 
bitter international struggle. And it was 

here that I first learned to appreciate the 
human qualities of Dr. Valentiner. Now 
the slightly older man, noticing my reserve, 
went out of his way to demonstrate to me 
that art is an international world with no 
frontiers, that in discussing the works of 
art which we both loved we were speaking 
the same international language and could 
forget a past in which we had been en- 

Subsequently he was appointed to the 
Directorship of the Detroit Institute of 
Arts, and in the twenty-odd years of his 
tenure guided it successfully toward the 
great museum it has become. It was one 
of his gifts — apparent not only there but 
later at the Los Angeles Museum, at the 
Getty Museum, and at the North Carolina 
Museum — to be able to create intense 
aesthetic activity wherever he went. 
Through his personality and his dynamism, 
this man of wide knowledge and perception 
awakened in others the realization as to 
what these centers of art and education 
could and would mean in their lives, and 
he spurred their civic pride into aiding him 
in a task which he viewed almost as a 

To me the greatest quality of William 
Valentiner as a museum official was his 
immediate, almost instantaneous reaction 
to a work of art, as though speechless he 
did hear its voice which stimulated an 
immediate communion. But he never tried 
to please by admiring everything shown 
him — he was as quick to condemn as he 
was to praise. I recall vividly an encounter 


with him in Vienna, probably about 1925 
or 1926. By a series of extraordinary cir- 
cumstances, I had just acquired a very 
small, beautifully chiseled bronze Venus, 
with a patina so exquisite that it shone 
like gold, and I was excited by the possi- 
bility (later confirmed) of an attribution 
to Benvenuto Cellini. Still full of the thrill 
of such a fascinating discovery, I ran into 
William on the street and he, of course, 
immediately inquired whether my visit to 
Vienna had been fruitful. When I told 
him of my find, nothing would do but that 
he cancel the appointment to which he 
was headed and accompany me immedi- 
ately to my hotel — now at once. There he 
took the shimmering little object in his 
hands, caressed it as though it were some- 
thing alive, and before he left asked me to 
reserve it for his museum. 

This, unfortunately, was not possible, 
for a Viennese collector had already asked 
for the first refusal, although he had not 
yet definitely decided to buy it. When he 
did and I broke the news to William the 
following day, it was almost as if I had told 
him of the death of a close friend ! What a 
pity it is that I had not met him a few 
hours earlier, for the lovely Venus would 
now be in the Detroit Museum, available 
for all to see and admire — instead it was 
looted during the second World War, and 
its whereabouts today are unknown. 

I had many such meetings with this 
charming friend in Europe, for if we saw 
one another frequently in the States, we 
were both perforce limited in time. But 
in Europe he was relaxed; we could lunch 
and dine at leisure, time was no longer of 
the essence, exhibitions could be visited, 
art theories discussed and argued. The 
last time I had such an enjoyment was 

just a few weeks before William's death, 
in the early days of May, 1958. We had 
agreed before leaving New York to meet 
in Paris for the express purpose of visiting 
together an exhibition of French seven- 
teenth century art which he was anxious 
to study, as it was a field of which there 
are few examples on this side of the ocean — 
and he was as keen as a young scholar to 
complete his knowledge of this particular 
period of art about which so much is still 
unknown. Twice we went together to visit 
this impressive collection, and with the 
modesty and simplicity of the truly learned 
he thanked me for having given him an 
opportunity to study a field with which 
he admitted he was not particularly fa- 
miliar, but which appealed to him greatly. 

Though Dr. Valentiner was usually 
thought of first as an expert in Dutch 
painting — a field in which he had published 
widely — it was particularly a mutual love 
for Italian sculpture that drew us closer 
to one another. Many years back he had 
already written Origins of Modern Sail 7 pure 
which gave us then occasions for lengthy 
talks, and it is my fervent hope that his 
many remarkable studies, unfortunately 
dispersed throughout the Western world 
in the form of articles appearing in art 
magazines in English, Italian, German, 
and French, will some day be brought 
together. Even his fellow art historians, I 
feel certain, will be suprised at the im- 
portance of the role that Italian sculpture 
played in the life of William Valentiner. 

And when we last met in Paris, he was 
starting in a new direction — toward French 
sculpture of the Renaissance, and was in the 
process of getting the necessary authoriza- 
tions from French officials to photograph 
certain monuments which he considered 


essential starting points for this new en- 
deavor. He spoke of the difficulties involved 
in such photography, often calling for the 
building of special scaffoldings, as he had 
had to do in some of the Italian churches, 
in order to get at the details of sculptures 
perched way up on portals or pillars — 
details necessary to prove some theory 
which he had taken to heart. 

His visual memory was truly phenomenal, 
as I had good reason to know. To cite but 
one example, when he first saw the group 
of marbles — the majority of them unpub- 
lished and unidentified — which I had just 
acquired from Prince Liechtenstein's col- 
lection, he pointed at once to an Angel of 
the Annunciation and said, "You know, of 
course, that this completes the group al- 
ready here in a private collection. . . ." 
Well, of course, I did not know it, but his 
memory of the figures in question had 
been precise; a comparison of this charm- 
ing Angel with the rest of the group left 
no doubt. 

Of two others, he said with no hesitancy 

whatever, "Those are by Bonino da Cam- | 
pione. . . ." Seeing the amazement on my 
face, he added, "I can prove it; you have 
only to compare them to the figures on 
the tomb of Folchino de' Schizzi in Cre- l 
mone." Not only was his proof convincing 
when he produced the photograph, but nl 
his was the only photograph in the United 
States, as far as I could ascertain, of this as 
famous tomb; not only that, but he knew ^ 
exactly where in his file to lay his hand ij, 
on it! 

His last book, Rembrandt and Spinoza, re- 
veals still another vista in the vast horizons 
over which his mind ranged. In so sensitive 
and at the same time so direct a style, it 
is the work of a thinker, even of a phi- , c 
losopher. and one wonders in retrospect a 
whether there is not in it the premonition 
of a life whose course was ebbing. 

In William Valentiner I mourn not 
only a dear friend, but a man to whom I 
am greatly indebted for the enrichment of 
my fields of personal enjoyment. 



All items listed below were included in 
the "Valentiner Memorial Exhibition" and 
the catalogue, Masterpieces of Art (catalogue 
number indicated where applicable), with 
the exception of those marked with an 
asterisk; these items were received after 
the exhibition opened and are being pub- 
lished for the first time. 

American Painting 

* Montenegro, Enrique (born 1917). 
"Tablescape With Telephone.' 1 Oil on 
canvas, h:503-2> w:43 inches. Gift of the 
artist, Austin, Texas (G. 59.1 4.1). 

Montenegro, Enrique (American, born 1917). 
Tablescape With Telephone. Oil on canvas, 
503^2 x 43 inches. Gift of the artist. 

* Haseltine, William Stanley (1835- 
1900). "Torre Degli Schiavi, Campagna 
Romana, 1856." Oil on canvas, h:13%, 
w:19 J 2 inches. Gift of Mrs. Roger H. 
Plowden, London, England (G. 59.16.1). 

Ewing, Edgar (born 1913). "Blue Bar- 

Lebrun, Rico (American, born 1900). Figures. 
Oil on canvas, 84 x 45 inches. Gift of the artist. 


becue." Oil on board, h:16%, w:37 inches. 
Exhib.: "Ill Biennial of the Museum of 
Modern Art of Sao Paulo," Brazil, 1955. 
Lit.: Cat. 203. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Dalzell Hatfield and Mr. and Mrs. Edgar 
Ewing, Los Angeles, California (G. 59. 17.1). 

Feininger, Lyonel (1871-1956). "Fac- 
tory." Water color, hilO^, w:193^ inches. 
Signed, lower left. Coll.: Mrs. Lyonel 
Feininger, New York. Lit.: Cat. 163. Gift 
of Mrs. Lyonel Feininger, New York 

*Lebrun, Rico (born 1900). "Figures." 
Oil on canvas, h:84, w:45 inches. Gift of 
the artist, Hartford, Connecticut (G.59. 

European Painting 

Lely, Peter (English, 1618-1680). 
"Duchess of Cleveland." Canvas, h:50, 
w:40 inches. Coll.: Sir T. Lennard; Scott 
and Fowles, New York, No. 597. Exhib.: 
Museum and Art Gallery at Birmingham, 
England. Lit.: Cat. 97. Gift of Dalzell 
Hatfield Galleries, Los Angeles, California, 
and Van Diemen-Lilienfeld Galleries, New 
York (G.59. 18.1). 

* Brabazon, Hercules B. (English, 1821- 
1906). "Venetian Scene." Water color, 
h:63^2, w:9% inches. Signed, lower right. 
Gift of Mr. Rudolf Holzapfel, Dublin, 
Ireland (G.59. 24.1). 

* Brabazon, Hercules B. (English, 1821- 

Feininger, Lyonel (American, 1871-1956). Factory. Water color, lO^ x 19^ inches. Gift of Mrs. 
Lyonel Feininger, New York. 


Eve, Jean (French, born 1900). Wash House. Oil on canvas, 20 x 26 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. 
Paul Wescher, Santa Monica. 

1906). "Lake Scene." Water color, h:9V 8 , 
w:6^8 inches. Signed, lower right. Gift of 
Mr. Rudolf Holzapfel, Dublin, Ireland 

Boudin, Eugene (French, 1824-1898). 
"Beach Scene in Normandy." Canvas, 
h:10^g, w:\6l4 inches. Signed and dated, 
lower left: "E. Boudin 84." Lit.: Cat. 115. 
Anonymous gift (former loan) (GL. 58. 17.1). 

Hosiasson, Philippe (French, born 1898). 
"Noeud." Oil on canvas, h:57j^, w:45 
inches. Lit.: Cat. 126. Gift of Mr. 

Samuel M. Kootz, New York (G. 59. 7.1). 

Serpan, Saroslav (French, born 1922). 
"Ogaliuf." Oil on canvas, h:45, w:573^ 
inches. Lit.: Cat. 127. Gift of Mr. 
Samuel M. Kootz, New York (G.59.7.2). 

Bombois, Camille (French, born 1883). 
"Country Landscape." Oil on canvas, 
h:\0H, w:\5H inches. Lit.: Cat. 120. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Albert Lewin, New 
York (G.59.9.1). 

* Eve, Jean (French, born 1900). "Wash 
House." Oil on canvas, h:20, w:26 inches. 


Pannini, Giovanni Paolo (Italian, 1691 /2-1765). 
Interior of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. Oil on 
canvas, 5034 x 403/2 inches. Gift of Dr. and 
Mrs. Hans S. Schaeffer, New York. 

Signed and dated, lower right: "Jean Eve 
1929." Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Paul Wescher, 
Santa Monica, California (G. 58. 27.1). 

Utrillo, Maurice (French, 1883-1955). 
"Eglise de Leynes." Oil on canvas, h:20, 
w:24 inches. Signed, lower right: "Maurice, 
Utrillo, V." Gift (former loan) of Mr. and 
Mrs. S. J. Levin, St. Louis, Missouri 

Robusti, Jacopo [called Tintoretto] (Ita- 
lian, 1518-1594). "The Forge of Vulcan." 
Canvas, h:30^, w:52^2 inches. Coll.: 
Friedlander-Fuld, to 1919; S. Ogdan Stein- 
hardt, Paris. Exhib.: Kaiser-Friedrich-Mu- 
seums-Verein, Akademie der Kiinste, 1925 
(Cat. 397). Lit.: Cat. 35. Gift (former loan) 
of Mr. and Mrs. W. Lunsford Long, 
Warrenton (GL.56.1 5.2). 

Attributed to Callari, Paolo [called 
Veronese] (Italian, 1528-1588). "Portrait 
of Francesco Rovellius of Bergamo." Oil 
on canvas, h:41, w:34 inches. Lit.: Cat. 34. 
Gift of Thomas Agnew and Sons, Ltd., 
London, England (G.59.11.1). 

* Pannini, Giovanni Paolo (Italian, 
1691/2-1765). "Interior of St. Peter's Ca- 
thedral in Rome." Oil on canvas, h:50}4, 
w:403^ inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Hans S. 
Schaeffer, New York (G. 59.1 9.1). 


French, 14th century. "Madonna and 
Child." Ivory, h:llM inches. Coll.: Emile 
Baboin. Exhib.: "Mother and Child Theme 
in Art," North Carolina Museum of Art, 
1957. Lit.: Raymond Koechlin, "La Vierge 
et L'Enfant," in Emile Baboin Catalogue 
(Cat. 23); Cat. 99. Gift of Mrs. Edsel B. 
Ford, Detroit, Michigan (G. 59. 6.1). 

* Caparn, Rhys (American, contempor- 
ary). "Rearing Horse." Bronze, h:15, 
w:6 inches. Gift of Miss Doris Meltzer, 
New York (G.59.10.1). 

Decorative Arts and Others 

Italian, 16th century. Paneled Room. 
Said to have come from San Donato 
Palace (built by de Medici family), Flor- 
ence, Italy. H:8 feet 10 inches, w:20 feet, 
1:28 feet. Coll.: Mrs. Payne Whitney, New 
York; Dr. Armand Hammer, New York. 
Gift of Dr. Armand Hammer, New York 

French (School of Normandy), 16th 
century. Chest. Wood, h:393^, w:53K 
inches. Coll.: Brady Collection. Lit.: Cat. 
100. Gift of Mr. R. Stora, New York 

Italian (Venetian), 17th century. Chair. 


Johnston, Ynez (American, born 1920). Prince of Aquitaine. Chalk and ink drawing, 10% x 15 
inches. Gift of the artist. 

Wood, seat and back covered in leather, 
h:60, w:25^2 inches. Lit.: Cat. 24. Gift of 
Mr. R. Stora, New York (G.59.5.2). 


* Anonymous Master (early sixteenth 
century), Engraving. Dated 1502, h:3%, 
w:2% inches. Gift of Mr. J. B. Neumann, 
New York (G.59.20.1). 

Johnston, Ynez (American, born 1920). 
"Prince of Aquitaine." Chalk and ink 
drawing, h:\0%, w:15 inches. Lit.: Cat. 

197. Gift of the artist, Santa Monica, 
California (G. 59. 12.1). 

*DeJong, Gerber (Dutch, born 1886). 
"Landscape." Etching, h:7 3 §, w:6 inches. 
Gift of Dr. Maria Elisabeth Houtzager, 
Utrecht, Holland (G.59.21.1). 

Breughel, Jan, the Elder (Flemish, 1568- 
1625). "Sketches of Cattle and Farmers." 
Pen and water color, h:6^2, w:9% inches. 
Lit.: Cat. 49. Gift of Mr. Julius Bohler, 
Munich, Germany (G. 59. 4.1). 

Maryan, G. F. (French, contemporary). 
Lithograph (103/300). H:\2H, w:10 


inches. Lit.: Cat. 128. Gift of Galerie de 
France, Paris (G.59.13.1). 

Maryan, G. F. (French, contemporary). 
Lithograph (96/120). H:26, w:20 inches. 
Lit.: 128. Gift of Galerie de France, Paris 

Morelli, Carlo (Italian, 16th century). 
"Anatomical and Drapery Drawing." 
Crayon with tempera or gouache high- 
lights, h:10%, w:7i 2 inches. Lit.: Cat. 41. 
Gift of Mr. T. Gilbert Brouillette, Staten 
Island, New York (G.59.15.1). 

Music, Antonio (Italian, born 1909). 
Etching (27/75). H:20, w:26 inches. Lit.: 
129. Gift of Galerie de France, Paris 

Music, Antonio (Italian, born 1909). 
Etching (23/35). H:20, w:26 inches. Lit.: 
Cat. 129. Gift of Galerie de France, Paris 

Music, Antonio (Italian, born 1909). 
Etching (30/75). H:26, w:20 inches. Lit.: 
Cat. 129. Gift of Galeire de France, Paris 

Attributed to Palma, Jacopo (Italian, 
1544-1628). "The Harrowing of Hell." 
Red chalk, pen and bistre. Inscribed lower 
left: "da Palma." H:8K, w:llM inches. 
Lit.: Cat. 42. Gift of Mr. Germain Selig- 
man, New York (G.59.8.1). 

* Orsi, Lelio (Italian, 1511-1587). Draw- 
ing. Water color, wash and ink, h:l 1 w:9 

Orsi, Lelio (Italian, 1511-1587). Drawing. lt 
Water color, wash and ink, 11^ x 9 inches. \ 
Gift of Mr. D. H. Cevat, London. 


I 1 

inches. Gift of Mr. D. H. Cevat, London, \ 
England (G. 59. 22.1). 

* Spanish, 17th century. Illumination 
Cut from Canticle. H:10?^, w:83^ inches. 
Gift of Mr. J. B. Neumann, New York 





Born at Karlsruhe in 1880, Wilhelm Reinhold 
I Valentiner comes from an old family of scientists. He 
grew up in Heidelberg, where his father was teaching 
at the University, as well as being director of the observa- 
tory. At Heidelberg W. R. Valentiner completed his 
Ph.D. with a dissertation: "Rembrandt auf der Latein- 
schule." His teacher was Henry Thode. Even as a young 
student he evinced not only ability, but a charming 
personality; everybody loved him, and people in 
Heidelberg, especially at the art museum, talked of him 
in years to come with the greatest respect. The same 
thing happened afterwards in Holland, where, in The 
Hague, he became assistant to Hofstede de Groot and 
worked on the first volume of the latter's catalogues. 
Later in Berlin it was the same story in the museums 
where he worked. When Reiner Maria Rilke, after 
meeting him for the first time, wrote "To see you again 
would be my greatest pleasure — and to look you up 
in Berlin will be one of the first and most enjoyable 
things I am going to do on coming to Berlin." Rilke, 
usually very polite, meant wholeheartedly what he 
wrote. Just one example of Valentiner's fascinating 
personality: at Berlin he was introduced to the great 
Japanese art collector Matsuka, and they conversed 
for a short while. Talking to Valentiner, Matuska was 
so delighted with him as a human being as well as with 
his clarity of thinking and judgement, that he immedi- 
ately invited him to come to Japan to be his guest 
there, an invitation which, having other obligations, 
Valentiner was unable to accept. 

Already, when he was 28 years of age, Bode had 
recommended him as curator for one of the most im- 
portant museums of America, the Metropolitan Museum. 
Oddly, he was not to have charge of the picture gallery, 
in spite of his being already known for his great knowl- 
edge of paintings through his dissertation on Rem- 
brandt. He was hired to head the section on decorative 
art, which on second thought is not surprising, as shortly 
after having finished his studies at the University he 
had edited a catalogue about Spanish-Moorish Faience 
of the Beit Collection, London 1906. It must be said of 
Valentiner that he was an expert, not only on Dutch 
painting, but on nearly everything in the realm of art, 
following the example of his teacher and model, Bode, 
working scientifically on the most heterogenous things, 
as a kind of "universalist." He was not interested in 
studying only primitive Dutch artists, Italian sculpture, 
oriental carpets, but in many other things. He was 
always — even as an old man — a fervent admirer of 
modern art, fighting enthusiastically for its recognition. 
He fostered the German Expressionists in America at 
a time when he had to fear great disapproval. 

At the beginning of the war (1914), Valentiner was 
on a vacation trip in Germany. He enlisted voluntarily 
and by strange coincidence his instructing officer was 
Franz Marc. In his letters, "Letters from the Front 
Line," Franz Marc tells his wife: "Valentiner (his 
name was misspelled) is a fine, highly educated fellow 
and it is a blessing to be in touch with him." 

After 1918 it was impossible to start immediately to 
work at the Metropolitan Museum again, in spite of 

of Articles) 

the fact that the Americans, in a surprisingly short 
time, tried to pick up the interrupted relationship 
where they had left off. He then lived as a private 
scholar in Berlin for several years, went on long edu- 
cational treks as an explorer of art around Europe, and 
was called several times to America as an art expert. 
His most important scholarly works are about Dutch 
painting, especially about Rembrandt. In 1907 he 
published a revised volume of the complete works of 
Rembrandt in an issue of hlassiker der Kunst. Volumes 
on Frans Hals and Pieter de Hooch followed, and later 
one on the sketches of Rembrandt, of which unfortu- 
nately only two volumes, albeit very large and complete 
ones, were printed, until recently. He also published 
several smaller works, including essays about Dutch 
paintings, in German, American, Dutch and English 
magazines, and was co-editor of the American journal 
Art in America, later changed to The Art Quarterly. 

Whoever had the opportunity to work with Valentiner 
on an art publication of any size was fascinated again 
and again at the originality of his ideas and the clearness 
of his judgement at any discussion about the work in 
question, and at the constructive talent he possessed, 
sometimes quite bold but always clever. Some of his 
more rash attributions did not last upon later testing, 
and when he published an account of newly-found 
Rembrandt sketches (1922) he was so vehemently 
attacked that even with the help of Hofstede de Groot, 
he had difficulty in defending himself — a distasteful 
task for a quiet scholar who much preferred a peaceful 
way of life to a battle. As he had to sit in judgemen t 
over nearly every painting, found in America or in 
Europe, which bore even a slight resemblance to a 
Rembrandt, it is only too understandable that in some 
rare cases his enthusiasm to "discover" got the better 
of him. But this book, in which for the first time Valen- 
tiner could publish numerous, and doubtless genuine, 
Rembrandts, was of great value in another way as well, 
in that some doubtful, problematic paintings were 
brought to discussion, and became useful as "raw 
material" open to discussion, valuable for art science. 

In 1924 Valentiner became Director of the Museum 
of Art at Detroit. The museum was built during Valen- 
tiner's tenure. After a few years he returned to Berlin, 
but soon went back to America, where he was for many 
years Director of the Museum at Los Angeles, and since 
1955 at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Last spring when Valentiner arrived in Paris for his 
annual European vacation (hardly ever a real vacation 
because of the many requests for his professional 
opinion), I wrote him a letter telling him that, at least 
this time, he should completely relax and at last com- 
plete his memoirs, known only in fragments until then. 
In a hasty scrawl showing over-exertion, his answer 
came: "My memoirs are still very fragmentary; only 
God knows how far I will get with them." Unfortunately 
Fate stepped in. At the beginning of September, at the 
age of 78, he died in New York, after having been very 
sick in Munich. It is deeply regrettable that his auto- 
biography with all the recollections of his activity at 
the museums of Berlin, New York, Detroit, Los Angeles 
and Raleigh during half a century was never written, 


that all his knowledge of an international art dealing 
career spanning a decade was never revealed, and that 
his meetings with the most important scholars, artists, 
collectors and all kinds of fascinating personalities from 
all over the world were never described. 

Everyone who knew Valentiner from his youth on 
will think of him always as one of the kindest, most 
enchanting, charitable and lovable persons imaginable. 
But had that valuable document for art, history, and 
culture, his memoirs, been written, those who did not 
know him well and personally would have had oppor- 
tunity to discover for themselves what a fine, noble, 
and genuine personality this Wilhelm R. Valentiner 
had been. G. F. 


W. R. Valentiner, coming back to New York from a 
long trip to Europe at the beginning of September 
1958, died there at the age of 78 years. He had been 
down with a serious heart attack in June, during his 
stay in Munich, but as always, this had not affected 
him spiritually. He said there was still some unfinished 
business he had to attend to, and people believed in his 
optimism, as they were used to believing in anything 
he said; they had seen Valentiner wrestle successfully 
with difficulties of all kinds through all the ups and 
downs of a somewhat turbulent half century. He had 
never made much of it. This was not in his nature. He 
had taken the ups and downs of his own life and fate, 
the good and the bad as it came along, and he never 
stopped concentrating on his main interest in life: 
scientific research and the planning of museums, work- 
ing with the most admirable tenacity at the realism 
of his ideas and at the overcoming and solving of all the 
problems as they turned up daily. At an age when most 
retire, he became Director of the Museum at Raleigh, 
N. C, which in the history of museums in the U. S. A. 
had been the first public museum, founded exclusively 
by and entertained by public means of the State. He 
intended to add to it a collection of sculpture, including 
the most ancient art as well as the modern works of our 
time. The museum had a very good collection of paint- 
ings of all periods when Valentiner took over. He 
eliminated a few errors and replaced them by inportant 
individual works of art, among them Rembrandt's 
"Die Wut des Ahasver" (The Wrath of Ahasuerus) *, 
which may be one of the most important, if not the 
most important of the early Rembrandts, and Sephan 
Lochner's "Hieronymus" (Saint Jerome), a delightful 
early work of this master, taken from the art collection 
of R. v. Schwitzler, Cologne. 

These were Valentiner's last deeds. Previously he 
had been working for the County Museum (Los Angeles) 
and for the Getty Museum (California). But it is the 
Detroit Museum, which throughout a decade after 
World War I he supplied with a vast collection of 
famous paintings and sculptures, which owes its im- 
portance to him. Apart from the Jan van Eycks, Davids, 
Breugels, etc., the Dutch 17th century painters are 
represented in a surprisingly abundant and complete 
manner — this in addition to a very impressive collection 
of Italian masterworks: Titian, Correggio, Renaissance 
sculptures, etc. 

Preceding World War I, Valentiner, on a recommen- 

* Referred to in the Museum's permanent catalogue 
as "Esther's Feast." 

dation by Bode, had worked for a few years at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, as director 
of the section of decorative art. Valentiner, after he had 
finished his studies with Thode by publishing "Rem- 
brandt und seine Umgebung" (1905), had assisted 
Bode and Hofstede de Groot in Berlin. "Rembrandt und 
seine Umgebung" acquainted the world with the 
painter's family, from whom he had found his inspira- 
tions. Many of his portraits came to be identified as 
representations of his family — Saskia, Hendrikje, Titus. 

Before Valentiner had left Europe, his knowledge of 
decorative arts found its expression in the publication 
of the catalogue on Spanish-Moorish faiences for the 
collection of Alfred Beit (1908), as well as in his essay 
about Dutch ceramics. Once in the U. S. A., he did 
not forget his old love for Italian and Dutch paintings 
and with this contributed greatly to the stature of 
American art collections, as well as to the originating 
of collections of sculpture there, in both of which his 
influence could be strongly felt. Before the outbreak of 
World War I his three-volume catalogue was published 
concerning the extensive Johnson Collection at Phila- 
delphia (the Italian volume in collaboration with 
Berenson). He later compiled catalogues of the Goldman 
(1922) and Widener (1923) collections. 

At Detroit he constantly arranged exhibitions of 
masterworks by great painters: Fifty Paintings by Van 
Dyck, 1929; Rembrandt, 1930; 50 Masterworks by 
Frans Hals, 1935; 60 Paintings by Rubens, 1936. 
From these exhibitions American art collectors acquired 
some of the masterpieces for their collections or began 
with them the founding of a new collection. In 1927 
he was successful in the acquisition of a rare and most 
beautiful Rembrandt, the charming "Visitation" of 
1640 (Duke of Westminster Collection). The most 
important exhibition with which he was ever com- 
missioned was the New York World's Fair, 1939, 
preceding World War II, of which several catalogues 
give proof and information. 

Valentiner was productive as a writer. He wrote 
well and was always full of ideas. His manner of writing 
was charming, and his mind open to any form of ex- 
pression. His spheres of interest were manifold, various, 
and broad, one of them his deep preoccupation with 
antique sculpture. I do not know of any bibliography 
of his writings, in spite of their containing quite a num- 
ber of things of unusual interest and originality. He be- 
came famous as author of several volumes of Klassiker der 
Kunst. As were most of these well-known volumes, the 
one about Rembrandt was worked over too much by 
unqualified people from the start. Thanks to Valentiner, 
we now have the third wholly revised edition of his 
works, (1909), to which he wrote the two additional 
supplements (rediscovered masterpieces, 1921 and 
1923). The volumes "Frans Hals" and "Pieter de 
Hooch" are his also. The projected three-volume edition 
of Rembrandt drawings which he financed himself, 
consists of two volumes only (1925, 1934), as the ma- 
terial for the third volume was destroyed. In spite of 
Benesch's complete edition of Rembrandt's drawings, 
Valentiner's two volumes are worth studying and the 
loss of Volume III is very regrettable. 

The numerous Rembrandts scattered around the 
U. S. A. Valentiner treated in a separate book (1931). 
He also wrote an enlightening work on Nicolaes Maes 

Valentiner's favorite was Italian sculpture. Here, 
next to Bode, he proved to be the most successful inter- 


preter. Whatever he found was published in periodicals. 
There are books on Tino da Camaino (1935) and 
Michelangelo (1914, The Late Tears of Michelangelo), 
which are byproducts of his researches. Especially in 
his old age, he was interested in Italian sculpture. If 
there was anyone who deserved the distinction "Bundc- 
sregierung" after World War II, it was certainly 
Valentiner. It was only late in life that he became an 
American citizen, and he always, even while working 
in America, helped make scholarship important in 
Germany. His periodicals Art in America (from 1913) 
and Art Quarterly (from 1938), both in the best tradition 
of Bode, are, in spite of limited funds, the work of a 
skilled specialist. 

He acquired several works of art by contemporary 
German artists, editing books on sculptor Kolbe (1922) 
and Schmidt-Rottluff (1922), and he inspired colleagues 
such as Rathbone in Boston to collect expressionistic art. 
The big exhibition of German art at the Museum of 
Modern Art (N. Y.), the books by Kuhn (about Ex- 
pressionism at the Harvard Collection in Cambridge) 
and by Zigrosser (about graphic arts and Expressionism, 
1957) may go back directly to Valentiner's influence. 
Shortly before his death, he surprised us with a 
Kirchner Exhibition at Raleigh (January 1958), an 
astonishingly rich collection of this leading German 
artist being found in America. 

Valentiner comes from a family of scientists and he 
was always devoted to science, but he was far from being 
a professional. This is true of Valentiner both as a 
scientist and as a museum director. Above all he was 
a charming, extremely kind human being, always 
prepared to help others, full of enthusiasm, but governed 
in his judgement of art and people by a universal and 
objective knowledge of things and of human character. 
Sometimes he was resented and reproached for his too 
generous and too easy-going ways of crediting works of 
art to famous artists. (Zuschreibungen). He, of course, 
was liable to make mistakes as everyone is, but nobody 
was as willing to retract his errors with less ill-will than 
he. Of how little importance are these few mistakes, 
when compared to his fruitful contribution to scholar- 
ship during the work of a lifetime, over a period of 
fifty years, and which he donated to the world in an 
effortless, generous way! Even the most important 
scientific discoveries he presented in an offhand manner, 
superior to professional pride. He seems to have written 
quite a few diaries, which he unfortunately destroyed 
later on with only a few exceptions. How much we might 
have learned from him, reading of his encounters with 
Bodenhausen, Bode, Hofstede de Groot, and all his 
American friends — he made friends everywhere easily 
and was loved and esteemed by everybody. All that 
is left to us now is, beside his excellent workmanship, 
the memory of an extremely lovable, decent personality 
whose obvious charm lay in his unforgettable naturalness 
and simplicity, in his noble and independent attitude 
toward this world and its affairs. G. F. 


When the North Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh 
began to make preparations for an Exhibition in honor 
of its first Director, Wilhelm R. Valentiner (1880-1958), 
it planned to encompass the fifty years' activity of a 
great German art scholar in the service of American 
museums. Due to his death last September, the Anni- 

versary Exhibition became a Memorial Exhibition. 

The problems of such a show were not easy to solve. 
The trials of a painter's creativity, his influences, and 
his continuous development can be shown in an exhibi- 
tion. Our museums developed an outstanding example 
in presenting the exhibition commemorating Picasso's 
75th birthday. But how can an exhibition demonstrate 
the creative genius of a scholar who was among the 
greatest Museum Directors of our time, and to whom 
all America should be thankful for his service in an 
unending enrichment of its art treasures? 

As a pupil of Henry Thode and Carl Neumann in 
Heidelberg, Valentiner was trained in the scientific 
techniques of the new art history, which began to use 
new methods to explore the arts at the turn of the cen- 
tury. After he wrote his Dissertation on "Rembrandt 
and his Environment" in 1904, Hofstede de Groot took 
Valentiner to Holland to assist him in preparation of the 
German edition of Rembrandt's Drawings (1905) as 
well as a work on the Dutch Masters of the 17th century 
(1906). Then he went to Berlin as Assistant to Wilhelm 
von Bode at the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum. There he 
acquired his first knowledge of museum techniques as 
Curator of Decorative Arts. Bode recommended him to 
J. P. Morgan, then President of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, in New York. His American museum 
career began in 1908. Because of his knowledge of the 
art of the Netherlands, he became in America a counter- 
part to Bernard Berenson, who specialized in the art 
of the Italian Renaissance. He inspired the love of 
Americans for the art of the north, especially Holland 
and Flanders. He wrote the first accurate monograph 
on Rembrandt for Klassiker der Kunst in 1908, and fol- 
lowed it with a volume on Frans Hals in 1921. He was 
sent to Europe on a buying trip for the Metropolitan 
Museum in 1914, and while in Germany he was caught 
by surprise by the war. He volunteered for the German 
Army. His Sergeant was the painter Franz Marc. 
Valentiner was enthusiastic about the young German 
art. He stood up for the new generation of painters, 
gathered their works and wrote many monographs and 
newspaper articles about them. 

His suspension by the Metropolitan Museum because 
of hostility towards all things German delayed his 
return after the war. When a history of the Museum 
appeared in print, not one word of his activity in building 
it up was mentioned. 

While he was still in Germany, he was asked to 
become advisor to the Detroit Institute of Art. For this 
museum he bought the first paintings of Matisse, Van 
Gogh, Degas, Monet, etc. His taste is largely responsible 
for the art education in American museums. He pre- 
pared the first show of German Expressionists in America 
in 1923, and made the first friends for the new German 
art. From 1924 to 1944 he held the position of Director 
of the Museum in Detroit and made it into one of the 
most advanced museums in the country. Prominent 
American collectors had their collections catalogued by 
him. Paintings earlier attributed to great artists were 
often correctly identified, much to the disappointment 
of their owners. Valentiner's judgement was acknowl- 
edged as final. Many collectors wanted his advice, and 
they often bought works of art that were later given to 
museums. In that way W. R. Valentiner contributed 
substantially to the enrichment of American art col- 
lections. He arranged large exhibitions that furthered 
the knowledge and understanding of art. Rembrandt, 
Frans Hals, Dutch genre and landscape painting, Van 


Dyck, Rubens, Italian Gothic and Renaissance sculp- 
ture, Leonardo da Vinci, Rembrandt and his Pupils, 
are only a few themes that he handled in the course of 
his museum career. 

In 1926 he bought the first works of pre-Columbian 
and African art for an American museum. 

At the age of 66 he went to the Los Angeles County 
Museum. He published The Art Quarterly, an art maga- 
zine, at the same time. In 1951 he began to gather 
works of art for the newly founded museum in Raleigh, 
North Carolina. He became Director of Paul Getty's 
Museum in Santa Monica, California, in 1954. Mr. 
Getty is the richest oil magnate in the world. Later, 
at the age of 75, he took over as the Director of the 
North Carolina Museum of Art. Because of the many 
new acquisitions and the exhibitions he arranged for 
several museums, he wrote over 600 scientific contribu- 
tions that appeared in museum publications, books, 
and newspapers. In 1957 he received the Service Cross, 
1st Class, from President Heuss. In 1958 he revised his 
book of Rembrandt for a new edition of the Klassiker 
der Kunst. Shortly thereafter he died in New York of a 
lung infection. 

So ended a successful and industrious life to which the 
Memorial Exhibition in Raleigh payed a worthy tribute. 
In order to show his activity pictorially a gigantic 
exhibition was gathered. It was composed of works 
loaned by all the museums which Valentiner enriched 
through his purchases, of works belonging to private 
collectors who sought his advice, and which will even- 
tually go to American museums, and of his own col- 
lection of ancient and modern art. The exhibition 
demonstrates again and again his infallible taste and his 
feeling for highest quality. The works of many masters 
were included, from wonderful Rembrandt sketches, 
Persian miniatures, sculptures by Marcks, Kolbe, and 
Lehmbruck to paintings by Nolde, Rolfs, Heckel and 
Schmidt-Rottluff. Nine portraits of W. R. Valentiner 
bear witness to a certain vanity which he could never 
quite subdue. 

Because of this exhibition, the Museum in Raleigh 
will acquire many gifts of art to honor its late director, 
substantially enlarging the core of this young collection. 

A large, 350-page, comprehensive catalogue of the 
exhibition, in quarto, contains about 200 illustrations 
and color plates as well as a part of Valentiner's auto- 
biography which deals with his development and ac- 
tivities between 1890 and 1920. Also included is an 

unpublished speech about Rembrandt and Frans Hals 
and a detailed bibliography of all of his writings, as well 
as an appreciation of his work written by the present 
Director of the Museum, James B. Byrnes. 

K. S. 


Among the art historians of my generation, W. R. 
Valentiner will always be remembered — a celebrated 
authority, and indefatigable researcher, above all in 
the fields of seventeenth century Dutch painting and 
Italian sculpture of the thirteenth to the sixteenth 

Born in Karlsruhe on the second of May 1880, and 
died in New York on the sixth of September 1958. 
After studying at the University of Heidelberg, he 
became the assistant of Hofstede de Groot and Bode. 
In 1908, he left Germany for New York to become 
Curator of Decorative Arts at the Metropolitan Museum. 
Finding himself in Germany in 1914, participated in 
the war, and returned to the United States in 1921. 
Consultant and then Director of the Detroit Institute 
of Arts until 1944, creator of not only major American 
museums, but also a number of famous collections 
such as the Ford, the Fisher, etc. Upon leaving Detroit, 
was enlisted as Consultant at the Los Angeles County 
Museum from 1946 to 1954 and then was Director of 
the North Carolina Musuem from 1955 until his death. 

It can be said that wherever Valentiner paused a 
new museum was born. Innumerable were the exhibi- 
tions which he organized, among which was the 1939 
large show of masterpieces at the New York World 
Fair. Also numerous were his books on Rembrandt, 
Pieter de Hooch, Frans Hals, etc. Research on Italian 
sculpture was perhaps Valentiner's major endeavor in 
his last years, and Commentari remembers with gratitude 
his "Simone Talenti, Sculptor," published in 1957. A 
man of great goodness, of vast cultural background, 
quick to understand modern art (and in sculpture, 
published also many notable theories — Origins of Modern 
Sculpture — in 1946). A born researcher, ingenuous and 
matured in knowledge, Valentiner was one of the most 
honored personalities in the field of art history in the 
last fifty years. Staff 

European Contributors: 

Colin Agnew, Managing Director, Thomas Agnew & Sons, Ltd., London; Hans Hess, Curator, City of York Art Gallery, York; 
Kduard Plietzsch, art dealer, Cologne; Friedrich Winkler, Director, Kupferstich-Kabinett, Staatliche Museum, Berlin; Fritz W . 
Neugass, German scholar and writer now residing in Mew York City; Lionello Venturi, Co-Director, COMMENTARI, Rome. 

The Museum is grateful to Mrs. Gertrude Fleischmann and 
Mrs. George M. Stevens, Jr., for translations from the German. 

North Carolina State Library 



Officers and Board of Directors of the State Art Society 

Governor Luther H. Hodges Honorary President 

Mr. Robert Lee Humber President 

Mr. Edwin Gill Vice-President 

William Oliver Smith 1 Treasurer 

Ex Officio 

Hon. Luther H. Hodges Governor oj North Carolina 

Dr. Charles M. Carroll State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Hon. Malcolm B. Seawell Attorney General 

Mrs. J. H. B. Moore Art Chairman, North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs 


Mrs. T. Melville Brousrhton A r , 

J & Appointed by the Governor 

Mr. Egbert L. Davis, Jr. 

Mrs. J. H. B. Moore Mr. Robert Lee Humber 

Mr. Edwin Gill Mrs Charles Cannon 
Mrs. George W. Paschal, Jr. 

Mr. Watts Hill, Jr. Mr - Ral P h C - Price 

Mrs. O. Max Gardner Mr. George M. Ivey 

Staff of the Museum 

James B. Byrnes Acting Director 

Ben F. Williams Curator 

Charles W. Stanford, Jr Curator of Education 

Peggy Jo Kirby Registrar 

William T. Beckwith Budget Officer 

Margaret P. Ehringhaus 2 Public Information 

William A. Martin Photographer 

Candy Russell 3 Secretary to Director 

Christie McLeod Secretary 

William A. Weathersby Library Assistant 

Edith Johnson Sales Desk 

Frank L. Manly Preparator 

Branton L. Olive Packer and Shipper 

James R. Hampton Head Museum Guard 


Hours: Open Tuesdays through Saturdays 10-5; Sundays 2-6; Closed Mondays and 
legal holidays. 

Telephone: TE 4-3611, Ext. 7568, 7569. 

Tours: May be scheduled upon advance telephone or written request. 

Membership in the North Carolina State Art Society: Annual $5.00; Contributor 

$10.00; Sustaining $25.00; Patron $50.00; Life $100.00; Donor $500.00; Benefactor 


1 Deceased. 

2 Resigned November, 1959; position now occupied by Margaret T. Burns. 

3 Resigned November, 1959; position now ocupied by Louise W. Parker. 

The North Carolina Museum of Art 




Permit No. 453